Educational Technology

This is a project I have undertaken for my OU module H809. The question was "Think back over the past 25 years or so, and try to agree in your tutor group upon a timeline of the available digital technologies in education." For initial inspiration and first ten dates, see With contributions from Paula Shaw, Lorna Saunders, Benjamin Sanders, Lindsay Jacobs, Helen Johnson, Deborah Meakin, Dana Taylor

1967-01-01 00:00:00


invented by Andries van Dam and Ted Nelson - now starting to be used for such things as online dictionaries Contributed by Paula Shaw

1967-01-01 00:00:00

Bruner (Constructivist, Instructional Design)

states that children understand and remember concepts that they develop through their interaction with the environment. This has influenced education by allowing it to be a hands on learning environment.

1968-01-01 00:00:00

Video game console

invented by Ralph H. Baer not used much yet but I am sure it will be used for simulations Contributed by Paula Shaw

1969-01-01 00:00:00


ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network), the first "packet-switching" network and precursor of the internet, is created by the U.S. Defense Department. Its first message is sent October 29, at about 10:30 P.M. This technology eventually grows to change not only education, but the world.

1970-01-01 00:00:00


The predecessor of the much-loved and much-used TI-83, this calculator paved the way for the calculators used today. There were initial concerns, however, as teachers were slow to adopt them for fear they would undermine the learning of basic skills.

1970-06-10 00:00:00

Malcolm Knowles - Andrgogy

Independent Study - self paced study

1971-01-01 00:00:00


invented by Ray Tomlinson - one of the main communication tools in online education. Contributed by Paula Shaw

1972-01-01 00:00:00


The Scantron Corporation removed the need for hand grading multiple-choice exams. The Scantron machines were free to use, but the company made money by charging for their proprietary grading forms. So sneaky... so the business model was to grow rich from the poor, in-debt college students?

1972-01-01 00:00:00

Michael Moore - Transactional Distance

Special teaching methods need to be used when at a distance (even though distance also exists in the classroom).

1977-01-01 00:00:00

A. Bandura - Social Learning Theory

Behaviourist, behaviour is formed by observing and reacting to others. Explains human behaviour.

1978-03-16 07:38:39

Vygotsky - Scaffolding (ZPD)

Learning is a cognitive development shaped by individual differences and the influence of culture. Adults and kids view the world differently. That difference is the Zone of Proximal Development.

1978-10-08 08:29:53

Vygotsky- Zone of Proximal Development

Father of social constructivism. This is about what the child can do with the help of an instructor. (Or the difference between what a learner can do without help and with help.)

1978-10-08 08:29:53

Jack Mezirow and Transformational Learning

How beliefs etc are transformed through discussion and reflection

1981-01-01 00:00:00


IBM introduced its version of the personal computer (PC) with its Model 5150. It's operating system was MS-DOS. C:/DOS, C:/DOS/RUN, RUN/DOS/RUN...

1981-01-01 00:00:00

Patricia Cross - Adult Learning

lifelong learning: holistic, within a network, self-directed

1983-01-01 00:00:00


invented by Sony - predecessor to YouTube Contributed by Paula Shaw

1983-04-01 00:00:00


Developed from group of local and research networks. In 1983 it went live with 50 networks joined together. Contributed by Deborah Meakin

1983-06-10 00:00:00

Gardner - Multiple Intelligences

states that learning is shaped by innate intelligences. The 8 intelligences include linguistic, musical, math/logical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalist. This allows for many different styles of teaching and ways that information is presented in a classroom. Customisation of instructional design to suit different learning needs and styles.

1989-01-01 00:00:00


Tim Berners-Lee invents the Web with HTML as its publishing language

1990-01-01 00:00:00


Multimedia features were developed in computers giving them dedicated graphic cards and sound cards, allowing for simulations, educational videos, games and various learning programs with animation and sound.

1991-01-01 00:00:00


The smart board (interactive white board) was introduced by SMART Technologies.

1991-01-01 00:00:00

Lave & Wenger - Situated Learning

"learning occurs in social contexts that emerge and evolve when people who have common goals interact as they strive towards those goals" Communities of practice

1993-01-01 00:00:00


"We drive innovation in UK education and research, and have been doing so for more than 15 years." Contributed by Deborah Meakin

1993-01-01 15:11:48


Use of VR in training and education. Paper discussing its use published in 1998 by DARPA. Contributed by Lorna Saunder.

1994-01-01 00:00:00


IBM Simon was the first phone that can be regarded as a smartphone. The impact of wide educational use of these phones still remains to be seen. Contributed by Helen Johnson

2000-01-01 00:00:00


A teaching method that essentially involves student's instruction taking place outside of the classroom through an interactive digital experience and the homework being done in class with the help of the teacher and other peers. This trend is usually coupled with other trends such as project based learning.

2000-01-30 15:11:48

Digital TV

General beginning of digital TV broadcasting, changing possibilities of interactivity, storage, dissemination and display. Contributed by Benjamin Sanders

2001-01-08 00:42:58


iTunes university contains podcasts produced by universities around the world. The Open University example is below.

2002-08-20 00:00:00


This CMS was launched by Martin Dougiamas as part of his postgraduate thesis. In 2013 it is used by 65,205,618 people worldwide.

2003-01-01 15:11:48


Linden Labs Second Life launched. Used extensively in education and training. Contributed by Lorna Saunders.

2004-01-01 00:00:00


Salman Kahn began to record videos at the request of a younger cousin who felt that if the lessons were recorded, she could skip through parts she had mastered, yet replay other parts that were troubling her to learn. Khan’s model is to essentially provide tutoring on a one-to-one basis. Recently, Khan Academy videos have been used by some educators as part of their flipped classroom strategy. Kahn has since been funded by Google and other large organizations and has played a key role in revolutionizing education with technology.

2004-01-01 00:00:00

George Siemens - Connectivism

A theory for the digital age; knowledge is growing too fast to manage as individuals, therefore the future of learning takes place within online self-organising social systems.

2005-01-01 00:00:00

Cloud Computing

"OpenNebula was first established as a research project back in 2005 by Ignacio M. Llorente and Rubén S. Montero. Since its first public release of software in March 2008, it has evolved through open-source releases and now operates as an open source project." Contributed by Deborah Meakin

2005-02-01 00:42:58


YouTube enabled teachers to publish classes, students to publish work and now many tutors and teachers have their own channels.

2008-01-01 00:00:00

The first MOOC

Connectivism and Connective Knowledge was the first MOOC presented by The University of Manitoba

2010-01-01 00:00:00


The iPad is a slate computer with the ability to bring together many technologies for learning in a new, very powerful way. The iPad's price, power and ease of use pushed its adoption in many schools where each student receives an iPad instead of a textbook. Learning on this format is much more interactive, immersive and personalized than a traditional textbook.

2011-01-01 00:00:00

Raspberry Pi

The Raspberry Pi goes starts the manufacturing process and children (and an awful lot of grown ups) bring down RS Components website trying to buy one. Contributed by Dana Taylor

Educational Technology

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