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1957-10-04 01:59:57

Sputnik 1

The Sputnik 1 spacecraft was the first artificial satellite successfully placed in orbit around the Earth and was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome at Tyuratam (370 km southwest of the small town of Baikonur) in Kazakhstan, then part of the former Soviet Union. The Russian word "Sputnik" means "companion" ("satellite" in the astronomical sense).

1957-11-03 01:59:57

Sputnik 2 Laika

Sputnik 2 was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit and was the first such biological spacecraft. It was a 4 meter high cone-shaped capsule with a base diameter of 2 meters. It contained several compartments for radio transmitters, a telemetry system, a programming unit, a regeneration and temperature control system for the cabin, and scientific instruments. A separate sealed cabin contained the experimental dog Laika.

1958-01-31 00:00:00

Explorer 1

Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.

1959-01-02 00:00:00

Luna 1

Luna 1 was the first spacecraft to reach the Moon, and the first of a series of Soviet automatic interplanetary stations successfully launched in the direction of the Moon.

1959-03-03 00:00:00

Pioneer 4

Pioneer 4 was a spin stabilized spacecraft launched on a lunar flyby trajectory and into a heliocentric orbit making it the first US probe to escape from the Earth's gravity.

1959-09-12 23:15:29

Luna 2

Luna 2 was the second of a series of spacecraft launched in the direction of the Moon. The first spacecraft to land on the Moon, it impacted the lunar surface east of Mare Serenitatis near the Aristides, Archimedes, and Autolycus craters.

1959-10-04 00:00:00

Luna 3

Luna 3, an automatic interplanetary station, was the third spacecraft successfully launched to the Moon and the first to return images of the lunar far side.

1960-08-19 20:08:41

Sputnik 5 Belka and Strelka

Belka and Strelka spent a day in space aboard Korabl-Sputnik 2 (Sputnik 5) on 19 August 1960 before safely returning to Earth.

1961-04-12 14:47:40

CM Yuri GAGARIN

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. On 12 April 1961, he was the first human to fly into outer space; his Vostok spacecraft completed an orbit of the Earth in 108 minutes.

1961-04-12 23:31:29

Vostok 1 - Yuri Gagarin

Vostok 1 was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history. The Vostok 3KA space capsule was launched from Baikonur Cosmodrome on April 12, 1961, with Soviet cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin aboard, making him the first human to cross into outer space.

1961-05-05 01:59:57

Mercury Redston 3 Freedom 7

Mercury Redstone 3 (MR-3, also designated Freedom 7) was the first flight of an American rocket with a human on board (Alan B. Shepard, Jr.), occurring twenty-three days after Yuri Gagarin's orbital flight of Vostok 1.

1961-05-05 06:28:23

Alan SHEPARD CM

Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett "Al" Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American naval officer and aviator, test pilot, one of the original NASA Mercury Seven astronauts, and businessman, who in May 1961 made the first manned Mercury flight. Shepard's craft entered space, but did not achieve orbit. He became the second person, and the first American, to travel into space, and the first person to manually control the orientation of his spacecraft. Ten years later, at age 47 and the oldest astronaut in the program, Shepard commanded the Apollo 14 mission (1971), piloting the lander Antares to the most accurate landing of the Apollo missions. He became the fifth and oldest person to walk on the Moon, and the only one of the Mercury Seven to do so. During the mission, he hit two golf balls on the lunar surface.

1961-05-19 23:31:29

Venera 1

Venera 1, also known occasionally in the West as Sputnik 8 was the first spacecraft to fly past Venus, as part of the Soviet Union's Venera programme.

1961-07-21 22:03:37

Mercury Redstone 4

Mercury Redstone 4 (MR-4, also designated Liberty Bell 7) was the second flight of an American rocket with a human on board (Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom) and the last suborbital manned flight.

1961-07-21 22:09:18

Gus GRISSOM

Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967), (Lt Col, USAF), was one of the original NASA Project Mercury astronauts, a United States Air Force test pilot and a mechanical engineer. He was the second American to fly in space, and the first member of the NASA Astronaut Corps to fly in space twice. Grissom was killed along with fellow astronauts Ed White and Roger Chaffee during a pre-launch test for the Apollo 1 mission at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (then known as Cape Kennedy), Florida. He was the first of the Mercury Seven to die.

1961-08-23 07:57:22

Ranger 1

Ranger 1 was a spacecraft whose primary mission was to test the performance of those functions and parts necessary for carrying out subsequent lunar and planetary missions using essentially the same spacecraft design. A secondary objective was to study the nature of particles and fields in interplanetary space.

1961-11-18 00:00:00

Ranger 2

This was a flight test of the Ranger spacecraft system designed for future lunar and interplanetary missions. Ranger 2 was designed to test various systems for future exploration and to conduct scientific observations of cosmic rays, magnetic fields, radiation, dust particles, and a possible hydrogen gas "tail" trailing the Earth.

1962-01-26 19:47:35

Ranger 3

Ranger 3 was designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to impacting on the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft. Due to a series of malfunctions the spacecraft missed the Moon.

1962-02-20 18:33:43

Mercury Atlas 6 Earth Orbiter (Glenn)

Mercury Atlas 6 (MA-6, also designated Friendship 7) was the first orbital flight of an American rocket with a human on board. The pilot was John H. Glenn, Jr.

1962-02-20 18:33:43

CM John GLENN

Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was in 1962, the first American to orbit the Earth, circling it three times.

1962-04-23 14:47:40

Ranger 4

Ranger 4 was designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to impacting on the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft. An onboard computer failure caused failure of the deployment of the solar panels and navigation systems, the spacecraft impacted on the far side of the Moon without returning any scientific data.

1962-05-24 14:08:10

Mercury Atlas 7 Earth Orbiter (Carpenter)

Mercury Atlas 7 (MA-7, also designated Aurora 7) was the second orbital flight of an American rocket with a human on board. The pilot was originally planned to be Donald K. Slayton but was changed to be M. Scott Carpenter after a medical examination of Slayton revealed an irregularity in his heartbeat.

1962-08-12 21:03:22

Vostok 3 and Vostok 4

Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 were launched a day apart on trajectories that brought the spacecraft within approximately 6.5 km (4.0 mi) of one another.

1962-08-27 23:20:17

Mariner 2

Mariner 2 (Mariner-Venus 1962), an American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter. The Mariner 2 spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral on August 27, 1962 and passed as close as 34,773 kilometers (21,607 mi) to Venus on December 14, 1962.

1962-10-03 16:28:24

Walter SCHIRRA CMD

Walter Marty "Wally" Schirra Jr. (March 12, 1923 – May 3, 2007), (Capt, USN), was an American naval officer and aviator, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and one of the original seven astronauts chosen for Project Mercury, United States first effort to put humans in space. He flew the six-orbit, nine-hour Mercury-Atlas 8 mission on October 3, 1962, becoming the fifth American, and the ninth human, to ride a rocket into space. In the two-man Gemini program, he achieved the first space rendezvous, station-keeping his Gemini 6A spacecraft within 1 foot (30 cm) of the sister Gemini 7 spacecraft in December 1965. In October 1968, he commanded Apollo 7, an 11-day low Earth orbit shakedown test of the three-man Apollo Command/Service Module. He was the first person to go into space three times, and the only person to have flown in Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo, logging a total of 295 hours and 15 minutes in space.

1962-10-03 22:25:27

Mercury Atlas 8 Earth Orbiter (Schirra)

Mercury Atlas 8 (MA-8, also Sigma 7) was the third manned orbital flight of the Mercury program. The pilot was Walter M. Schirra, Jr. Astronaut Schirra called his mission a "textbook flight", the only difficulty having been attaining the correct temperature adjustment on his pressure suit.

1962-10-18 14:47:40

Ranger 5

Ranger 5 was designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to impacting on the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft. Due to an unknown malfunction, the spacecraft ran out of power and ceased operation. It passed within 725 km of the Moon.

1963-04-02 14:47:40

Luna 4

Luna 4 was the USSR's first successful spacecraft of their "second generation" lunar program. The spacecraft, also referred to as an automatic interplanetary station. Rather than being sent on a straight trajectory toward the Moon, the spacecraft was placed first in a 167 x 182 km Earth orbit and then was rocketed in a curving path towards the Moon. Luna 4 achieved the desired initial trajectory but during trans-lunar coast the Yupiter astronavigation system failed (most likely due to thermal control problems) and the spacecraft could not be oriented properly for the planned midcourse correction burn.

1963-05-15 09:44:56

Mercury Atlas 9 Earth Orbiter (Cooper)

Mercury Atlas 9 (MA-9, designated also Faith 7) was the fourth and final manned orbital flight of the Mercury program. The pilot was L. Gordon Cooper, Jr.

1963-06-16 14:10:56

Vostok 6 - Valentina Tereshkova

Vostok 6 was the first human spaceflight to carry a woman, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, into space.

1964-01-30 22:30:29

Ranger 6

Ranger 6 was designed to achieve a lunar impact trajectory and to transmit high-resolution photographs of the lunar surface during the final minutes of flight up to impact. The spacecraft carried six television vidicon cameras, 2 full-scan cameras (channel F, one wide-angle, one narrow-angle) and 4 partial scan cameras (channel P, two wide-angle, two narrow-angle) to accomplish these objectives. The cameras were arranged in two separate chains, or channels, each self-contained with separate power supplies, timers, and transmitters so as to afford the greatest reliability and probability of obtaining high-quality video pictures. No other experiments were carried on the spacecraft. Due to a failure of the camera system no images were returned.

1964-07-28 22:30:29

Ranger 7

Ranger 7 was designed to achieve a lunar impact trajectory and to transmit high-resolution photographs of the lunar surface during the final minutes of flight up to impact. The spacecraft carried six television vidicon cameras, 2 full-scan cameras (channel F, one wide-angle, one narrow-angle) and 4 partial scan cameras (channel P, two wide-angle, two narrow-angle) to accomplish these objectives. The cameras were arranged in two separate chains, or channels, each self-contained with separate power supplies, timers, and transmitters so as to afford the greatest reliability and probability of obtaining high-quality video pictures. No other experiments were carried on the spacecraft.

1964-10-12 07:41:17

Voskhod 1

Voskhod 1 In October of 1964 it achieved a number of "firsts" in the history of manned spaceflight, being the first space flight to carry more than one crewman into orbit, the first flight without the use of spacesuits, and the first to carry either an engineer or a physician into outer space. It also set a manned spacecraft altitude record of 336 km (209 mi). The three spacesuits for the Voskhod 1 cosmonauts were omitted; there was neither the room nor the payload capacity for the Voskhod to carry them. The original Voskhod had been designed to carry two cosmonauts, but Soviet politicians pushed the Soviet space program into squeezing three cosmonauts into Voskhod 1

1964-11-28 01:55:54

Mariner 4

Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner–Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode. It was designed to conduct closeup scientific observations of Mars and to transmit these observations to Earth. Launched on November 28, 1964, Mariner 4 performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. It captured the first images of another planet ever returned from deep space; their depiction of a cratered, seemingly dead world largely changed the view of the scientific community of life on Mars

1965-02-17 08:04:53

Ranger 8

Ranger 8 was designed to achieve a lunar impact trajectory and to transmit high-resolution photographs of the lunar surface during the final minutes of flight up to impact. The spacecraft carried six television vidicon cameras, 2 full-scan cameras (channel F, one wide-angle, one narrow-angle) and 4 partial scan cameras (channel P, two wide-angle, two narrow-angle) to accomplish these objectives. The cameras were arranged in two separate chains, or channels, each self-contained with separate power supplies, timers, and transmitters so as to afford the greatest reliability and probability of obtaining high-quality video pictures. No other experiments were carried on the spacecraft.

1965-03-18 01:05:01

Voskhod 2

Voskhod 2 (Russian: Восход-2, lit. 'Sunrise-2') was a Soviet manned space mission in March 1965. The Vostok-based Voskhod 3KD spacecraft with two crew members on board, Pavel Belyayev and Alexey Leonov, was equipped with an inflatable airlock. It established another milestone in space exploration when Alexey Leonov became the first person to leave the spacecraft in a specialized spacesuit to conduct a 12 minute "spacewalk"

1965-03-21 07:18:46

Ranger 9

Ranger 9 was designed to achieve a lunar impact trajectory and to transmit high-resolution photographs of the lunar surface during the final minutes of flight up to impact. The spacecraft carried six television vidicon cameras, 2 full-scan cameras (channel F, one wide-angle, one narrow-angle) and 4 partial scan cameras (channel P, two wide-angle, two narrow-angle) to accomplish these objectives. The cameras were arranged in two separate chains, or channels, each self-contained with separate power supplies, timers, and transmitters so as to afford the greatest reliability and probability of obtaining high-quality video pictures. No other experiments were carried on the spacecraft.

1965-03-23 09:37:04

Gemini 3 Earth Orbiter (Grissom, Young)

Gemini 3 was the first crewed Earth-orbiting spacecraft of the Gemini series. It was piloted by astronauts Virgil "Gus" Grissom and John Young, with the primary objective of demonstrating the crewed qualifications of the Gemini spacecraft

1965-05-09 01:24:45

Luna 5

The Luna 5 automatic interplanetary station was designed to continue investigations of a lunar soft landing. The spacecraft carried an imaging system and a radiation detector. After launch fom Baikonur on 9 May 1965 at 7:49:37 UT and 5 successful communications sessions the spacecraft performed a midcourse correction maneuver on 10 May. Unfortunately a problem developed in a flotation gyroscope (it did not have enough time to warm up properly) in the I-100 guidance control unit and control was lost so the spacecraft began spinning around its main axis.

1965-06-03 01:05:01

James McDivitt CM

James Alton "Jim" McDivitt (born June 10, 1929), (Brig Gen, USAF, Ret.), is an American former test pilot, United States Air Force pilot, aeronautical engineer, and NASA astronaut who flew in the Gemini and Apollo programs. He commanded the Gemini 4 flight during which Edward H. White performed the first U.S. spacewalk, and later the Apollo 9 flight which was the first manned flight test of the Lunar Module and the complete set of Apollo flight hardware. He later became Manager of Lunar Landing Operations and was the Apollo Spacecraft Program Manager from 1969 to 1972.

1965-06-03 21:20:26

Gemini 4 Earth Orbiter (McDivitt, White)

Gemini 4 was the second crewed mission of the Gemini series and carried James McDivitt and Edward White on a 4-day, 62-orbit, 98-hr flight from June 3 to June 7, 1965. The mission included the first American spacewalk.

1965-06-08 21:38:17

Luna 6

Luna 6 was an attempted lunar soft landing mission. It was similar to the Luna 5 design, also carrying an imaging system and a radiation detector.

1965-07-18 23:33:00

Zond 3

Zond 3 was launched from a Tyazheliy Sputnik (65-056B) Earth orbiting platform towards the Moon and interplanetary space. The spacecraft was equipped with an f106 mm camera and TV system that provided automatic inflight film processing. On July 20 lunar flyby occurred approximately 33 hours after launch at a closest approach of 9200 km. 25 pictures of very good quality were taken of the lunar farside from distances of 11,570 to 9960 km over a period of 68 minutes.

1965-08-21 20:39:29

Gemini 5 Earth Orbiter (Cooper, Conrad)

Gemini 5, carrying astronauts Gordon Cooper and Charles "Pete" Conrad was the third crewed Earth-orbiting spacecraft of the Gemini series. The flight was designed to last eight days and test rendezvous procedures. The major objectives of this mission were to demonstrate a long-duration crewed flight, evaluate the effects of long periods of weightlessness on the crew, and test rendezvous capabilities and maneuvers using a rendezvous evaluation pod

1965-10-14 10:45:02

Luna 7

The Luna 7 spacecraft was intended to achieve a soft landing on the Moon. However, due to loss of attitude control during the final approach to the lunar surface, the retrorockets were prevented from firing to slow the spacecraft and it impacted the lunar surface at 9.8 N, 47.8 W in the Sea of Storms on 7 October 1965 at 22:08:24 UT.

1965-12-03 16:07:27

Luna 8

Luna 8 was launched with the intended mission of achieving a soft landing on the Moon. However, a puncture to a cushioning airbag caused the spacecraft to spin, losing attitude control and preventing full firing of the retrorockets.

1965-12-04 20:39:29

Gemini 7 Earth Orbiter (Borman, Lovell)

Gemini 7 was the fourth crewed Earth-orbiting spacecraft of the Gemini series, having been launched before Gemini 6A. It carried astronauts Frank Borman and Jim Lovell on the 14 day mission

1965-12-15 10:10:22

Walter SCHIRRA

Walter Marty "Wally" Schirra Jr. (March 12, 1923 – May 3, 2007), (Capt, USN), was an American naval officer and aviator, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and one of the original seven astronauts chosen for Project Mercury, United States first effort to put humans in space. He flew the six-orbit, nine-hour Mercury-Atlas 8 mission on October 3, 1962, becoming the fifth American, and the ninth human, to ride a rocket into space. In the two-man Gemini program, he achieved the first space rendezvous, station-keeping his Gemini 6A spacecraft within 1 foot (30 cm) of the sister Gemini 7 spacecraft in December 1965. In October 1968, he commanded Apollo 7, an 11-day low Earth orbit shakedown test of the three-man Apollo Command/Service Module. He was the first person to go into space three times, and the only person to have flown in Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo, logging a total of 295 hours and 15 minutes in space.

1965-12-15 20:39:29

Gemini 6 Earth Orbiter (Schirra, Stafford)

Gemini 6A was the fifth crewed Earth-orbiting spacecraft of the Gemini series, having been launched after Gemini 7, with the intent of making rendezvous with Gemini 7 in Earth orbit. The astronauts on the 26 hour mission were Walter Schirra and Thomas Stafford.

1966-01-14 09:02:26

Sergei KOROLEV Death

Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov; 12 January [O.S. 30 December 1906] 1907 – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s. He is considered by many as the father of practical astronautics.

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