Economics and Industrialization

An informative timeline from the Early Georgian period to Today, demonstrating the changing costs of housing and industrial innovations. How transport infrastructure and population sizes have effected the economy and society.

1740-01-01 00:00:00


Rent for a year is 1/14 of the cost of the house (£550-650): £40-50, paid in quarterly instalments.

1750-08-17 17:36:11

Population moves from rural areas to urban.

1760-03-11 01:16:28

The canal network grows - building materials can be transported relatively cheaply.

1771-01-06 01:36:47

Britains first cotton mill opens.

1801-06-21 16:57:41

UK population 8.3 million

1810-04-13 06:37:56

Britain is an industrial nation

1812-04-17 17:18:00


First gas lighting utilities established.

1813-01-18 11:18:01


Large house - Rent 1/10th of cost of house, which is around £50-100 per year with build costs rising to £1000; Medium house - £16-£26 rent per year.

1813-01-18 11:18:01


William Hedley and Timothy Hackworth design a locomotive (Puffing Billy Steam).

1820-02-05 12:38:14


A national network of canals exists.

1829-02-27 00:38:30


Water filtration and reservoirs are introduced.

1830-09-01 15:38:32


Early development of the rail network affects the creation of suburbs and has an effect on how food is transported.

1830-09-01 15:38:32

The Liverpool and Manchester Railway opens: the world’s first inter-city passenger railway with steam locomotives.

1841-06-28 15:58:51

English towns grow by 25.9 % and 54% of the population live in urban accommodation

1845-07-08 13:18:59

UK population 18.5 million

1850-07-21 03:59:07

The price of gas halves and by 1885 there are about two million gas users in England and Wales.

1851-04-22 22:59:09

The population doubles whilst the urban population increases threefold.

1860-02-12 11:39:24


1860s Voluntary housing trusts become active providers of housing for the poor.

1875-06-21 06:59:51

First telephone exchange opened in London

1884-07-12 19:00:08


Invention of incandescent mantle.

1895-02-06 20:00:26

Building News estimates that a builder can complete a house for half the cost of using an architect.

1900-05-22 10:00:36


There are 150 tramway systems.

1901-05-25 03:20:37

UK population 30.5 million

1909-03-13 22:40:51


Average cost of a semidetached house is £425.

1910-06-16 15:20:53


Average cost of a 3 bedroom cottage at Letchworth Garden City is just over £150.

1911-03-19 09:20:55

79% of the population lives in towns and cities

1914-03-26 13:21:00

Virtually all houses are built by private enterprise.

1915-06-29 06:01:02

War Restrictions Act

Increase of rents and mortgage interest.

1918-07-06 10:01:08

Women gain the vote, albeit in limited numbers.

1918-07-06 10:01:08


Severe shortage of housing that private enterprise cannot tackle effectively due to the poor economy.

1920-01-08 23:01:10


Cost considerations are paramount in council housing. Space standards and amenities reduced.

1922-04-15 09:01:14

Early post-war ww1

Average cost to build a house is £2,000 in London’s New Towns.

1923-07-19 00:41:16


Increase of Rent and Mortgage Interest Restrictions Act Introduces the control of rent at next change of tenancy.

1929-08-02 08:41:27

The Great Slump

1930-05-05 03:41:28

Rising cost of living is offset by rising incomes and smaller families. Increasingly, married women are able to make a contribution to family incomes.

1945-06-10 23:41:55


Local Authorities develop 80% of newly built houses.

1945-06-10 23:41:55


A main objective for the government is to supply council homes.

1950-09-23 12:42:04

UK population 50 Million

1950-09-23 12:42:04

Increase in family cars.

1953-12-31 14:02:10


Target of 300,000 newly built homes achieved.

1961-01-17 15:22:23


House build cost £1,900 (not including land).

1964-07-27 17:02:29


A target of 500,000 new homes per year.

1970-08-12 01:02:40

Natural gas supplies 4% of the total energy delivered to the homes.

1972-08-16 11:42:43

Housing Finance Act

Government appoints rent officers and rent scrutiny boards that fix the level of rents.

1973-05-19 06:42:44

Oil crisis

Organisation of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC) proclaimed an oil embargo.

1973-05-19 06:42:44


Cost of an average house above £10,000 in London’s New Towns.

1973-05-19 06:42:44

Early 70s recession

With the 1973 oil crisis, the 70s suffer a ‘double dip’ of economic downturn.

1976-08-26 09:02:50

Department of Transport established

1979-03-03 15:22:55

Second oil crisis

1980-03-05 08:42:56

Major depression

Mass unemployment and re-structuring of industry.

Economics and Industrialization

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