Roman Republic (7th period Latin 3/4/AP)

Learn more about rulers, events, and historians during the Roman Republic

Workshop of Giuseppe Cesari [Public domain or Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons

0031 BC-09-02 00:00:00

Defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at the Battle of Actium

Octavian and his admiral Marcus Agrippa defeated Antony and Cleopatra at Actiumin 31 BC. - Cleopatra and Antony escaped with a few ships - most of Antony's soldiers were killed or surrendered - last chance at victory for Antony IMage:The Battle of Actium. Illustration. Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 1 Apr 2015. http://quest.eb.com/search/312_1014030/1/312_1014030/cite

0031 BC-09-02 00:00:00

Quote- battle of Actium

Therefore on both sides alike the conflict took on the greatest variety and was waged with the utmost bitterness. For Caesar's men damaged the lower parts of the ships all around, crushed the oars, snapped off the rudders, and climbing on the decks, seized hold of some of the foe and pulled them down, pushed off others, and fought with yet others, since they were now equal to them in numbers; and Antony's men pushed their assailants back with boathooks, cut them down with axes, hurled down upon them stones and heavy missiles made ready for just this purpose, drove back those who tried to climb up, and fought with those who came within reach.Image: ROMAN ART. Roman marble relief from a conmmemorative monument to the Battle of Actium (31 BC).. Photo. Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 27 Mar 2015. http://quest.eb.com/search/300_172057/1/300_172057/cite

0031 BC-09-02 00:00:00

Reign- battle of Actium

Octavian took power for himself after the war with Antony ended. -he portrayed Marc Antony as an enemy of Rome Statue of Caesar Augustus. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 1 Apr 2015. http://quest.eb.com/search/139_1890084/1/139_1890084/cite

0031 BC-09-02 00:00:00

Historian- battle of Actium

Dio Cassius (c150-235AD) was a Roman politician and historian -consul -proconsul in Africa -soldier -wrote 80 books /imafge:Roman civilization, marble bust of Roman statesman and general Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa (63 b.c.- 12 a.d.). Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 1 Apr 2015. http://quest.eb.com/search/126_3732738/1/126_3732738/cite

0042 BC-10-01 00:00:00

Historian- battle of Philippi

Appian of Alexandria was a historian who came from a wealthy family. -born around 95AD -wrote A Roman History -Most of what we know of him is from his own writings IMage:Marble head of Octavian dating to 40-60 a.d., from Athribis, Egypt. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 1 Apr 2015. http://quest.eb.com/search/126_536053/1/126_536053/cite

0042 BC-10-01 00:00:00

Quote- battle of Philippi

As the camp was in a strong position it was guarded by only a few men, for which reason Antony easily overcame them. Cassius' soldiers outside the camp were already being beaten, and when they saw that the camp was taken they scattered in disorderly flight. The victory was complete and alike on either side, Brutus defeating the enemy's left wing and taking their camp, while Antony overcame Cassius and ravaged his camp with irresistible courage. Image: Battle Of Philippi. Photographer. Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 1 Apr 2015. http://quest.eb.com/search/115_2739239/1/115_2739239/cite

0042 BC-10-01 00:00:00

Defeat of Brutus and Cassius at the Battle of Philippi

-Octavian was initially beaten by Brutus while Marc Antony defeated Cassius -Cassius then killed himself -Octavian and Marc Antony were able to defeat Brutus together, and he then killed himself. Image:Battle Of Philippi. Photographer. Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 1 Apr 2015. http://quest.eb.com/search/115_2739239/1/115_2739239/cite

0042 BC-10-01 00:00:00

Reign - battle of Philippi

http://quest.eb.com/search/153_2942465/1/153_2942465 Octavian and Antony were loyal to Julius Caesar, while Cassius and Brutus were opposed to him and helped in his assassination. -Octavian was Ceasars heir -Antony was an ally of Caesars - Brutus and Cassius were both politicians and military leaders Image:15th March 44 BC. Photographer. Encyclopædia Britannica ImageQuest. Web. 1 Apr 2015. http://quest.eb.com/search/115_2744954/1/115_2744954/cite

0043 BC-03-15 04:36:58

Caesar's Assassination

The senate is empty--save for a group of assassins...and their victim. On March 15, a group of senators gather in order to enact the ultimate revenge on Caesar. An act that will change the face of Rome, forever. Beware the Ides!

0043 BC-03-15 04:36:58

Caesar's Assassination (Reign)

In some ways the climax of his career, Caesar's assassination was the end of a long and glorious political campaign. Starting at the bottom, Caesar climbed the entirety of the Cursus Honorum, even surpassing the position of consul to become a dictator in his final years. The assassination elevated him to essentially a god.

0043 BC-03-15 04:36:58

Caesar's Assassination (Historian)

Although not much is known about him, Suetonius is one of the most important Roman historians. Born in the first century AD, Suetonius is most well-known for his series of biographies, The Lives of The Twelve Caesars, which, as you may have guessed, details Caesar's line beginning with Julius himself. Evidently, the man was a fan, making him perhaps a bit biased, and that's reflected in the quote given about Caesar's assassination.

0043 BC-03-15 04:36:58

Caesar's Assassination (Quote)

“Caesar was stabbed with twenty-three dagger thrusts and uttered not a word, but only a groan at the first stroke, though some have related that when Marcus Brutus rushed at him, he said in Greek, ‘You too, child?’” -Seutonius -- Emphasizing Caesar’s composure creates an interesting effect, emphasizing Caesar’s nobility, even during his murder. Seutonius tone suggest an admiration for the man, while sharing an appreciation for the tragic circumstances surrounding his death.

0043 BC-03-16 04:36:58

The Second Triumvirate

Caesar is dead, and Rome should lie in chaos. But it doesn't. Three very different individuals have come together to wrest control of the power vacuum. The Second Triumvirate has arrived.

0043 BC-03-16 04:36:58

The Second Triumvirate (Reign)

Forged in the fire surrounding Caesar's assassination, the Second Triumvirate seized control of the power vacuum and ushered in the end of the Republic. Augustus would go on to become emperor under the name Octavian after his brief stint in the Triumvirate. The triumvirate fell apart and into civil war after ten years, and the Republic died with it. Welcome to the Empire.

0043 BC-03-16 04:36:58

The Second Triumvirate (Historian)

Another fairly enigmatic historian, Appian was a Greek who lived in the second century AD, part of the wealthier class, who worked as a type of public advocate when he wasn't compiling histories. His primary work was a twenty-four book history of Rome. Although most of it did not survive, the parts that remain are incredibly helpful for historians analyzing the end of the republic. Despite his Greek roots, Appian seems to be a fairly reliable and accurate historian.

0043 BC-03-16 04:36:58

The Second Triumvirate (Quote)

“As soon as the triumvirs were by themselves they joined in making a list of those who were to be put to death. They put on the list those whom decreed by the triumvirs they suspected because of their power, and also their personal enemies, and they exchanged their own relatives and friends with each other for death, both then and later.” -Appian -- An indirect criticism of Roman politics, Appian clearly points out the corruption involved in the Second Triumvirate and the arbitrary discrimination against their personal enemies. It also seems to emphasize the lack of moral scruples among the members of the second triumvirate, drawing parallels to the first triumvirate. His tone is fairly easy to pick up on, and definitely lends the second triumvirate a sinister air.

0049 BC-01-01 00:00:00

Caesar Crosses the Rubicon

A man, poised on the point of no return. To turn back--cowardice. To go forward--suicide. Boldly crossing the river, Caesar intones, "Alea iacta est." The die is cast. And Rome will never be the same.

0049 BC-01-01 07:33:46

Caesar Crosses the Rubicon (Quote)

“Alea Iacta Est.” -Julius Caesar, upon crossing the Rubicon River. Artfully painting a metaphor about reaching the point of no return, Caesar’s comments reflect the view that the decision he made (to cross the Rubicon) was irrevocable and final. Now that he has crossed the river, Caesar believes events to be out of his control and up to fate, as symbolized by the dice.

0049 BC-01-01 07:33:46

Caesar Crosses the Rubicon (Historian)

In a now-classic twist on the old story, our best history of Caesar is provided by Caesar himself. De Bello Civili, Caesar's autobiographical account of the Civil War, is our best source of information on the subject and the battles that took place. Although it is an important scholarly text, it's crippled by its complete lack of objectivism. Despite the fact that Caesar wrote the history in third-person, its sharp pro-Caesar bias still shines through loud and clear.

0049 BC-01-01 07:33:46

Caesar Crosses the Rubicon (Reign)

Julius Caesar -- the man, the myth, the legend. Although he'd been steadily working his way up Rome's political ladder, the Second Civil War was a pivotal event in Caesar's ascension to power. And within the Civil War, the Rubicon was the moment where Caesar crossed the point of no return. For better or for worse, Caesar met his destiny on the river--and he decided to follow it.

0058 BC-01-15 00:00:00

Caesar's conquest of Gaul

In 58 BCE, Roman soldiers, under the supervision of Caesar, entered Gaul proper and attempted to conquer it. In 54 BCE the Gauls lead an insurrection and fought back against the Romans. In 51 BCE the last Celtic fort was destroyed by the Romans.

0058 BC-01-15 00:00:00

Caesar's conquest of Gaul

Caesar gives us the only Roman writings on the Gallic Wars. he most likely disregards the inhumane treatment afforded on the citizens of Gaul; however, Caesar certainly knows the particulars and strategies of every battle and knows exactly how the Romans were thinking.

0058 BC-01-15 00:00:00

Caesar's conquest of Gaul

“Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres. Quarum unum incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam, qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur…” This quote demonstrates Caesar’s intricate knowledge of battles in and landscapes of Gaul.

0058 BC-01-15 00:00:00

Caeser's conquest of Gaul

The Triumvirate was in charge, and then Crassus died in 54. Pompey and Caesar had alternative control afterward.

0060 BC-01-15 00:00:00

First Triumvirate

Crassus, Caesar and Pompey formed a secret coalition, and when Caesar was elected consul, he supported legislation sponsored by Crassus and Pompey; when Crassus and Pompey were elected consul, they extended Caesar’s military control by 5 years.

0060 BC-01-15 00:00:00

First Triumvirate

Plutarch was alive near the time in which the First Triumvirate took place, so he gathered information from people who were alive during the event.

0060 BC-01-15 00:00:00

First Triumvirate

“ Pompey spent all his time with his wife… Later (54 BC) she died in childbirth… Now there no longer existed the marrriage tie which had hitherto cloaked rather than restrained their rival ambitions. Soon, too, the news arrived how Crassus had lost his life in Parthia… Now fortune had, as it were, removed from the ring the third competitor.” Plutarch, who lived from 46 to 127, had intimate knowledge of the chronology of events which led to the downfall of the First Triumvirate.

0060 BC-01-15 00:00:00

First Triumvirate

Julius Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey the Great were co-rulers who made up the First Triumvirate. Agrarian Law was instituted by Caesar, and Caesar basically took control of everything militarily, especially Gaul.

0073 BC-03-01 00:00:00

Spartacus Slave Revolt

"When Spartacus turned on his pursuers, the Romans were entirely routed...This sucesss turned out t be the undoing of Spartaacus since it filled the slaves with over-confidence ... Spartacus, realizing he had no alternative, drew his army up for battle. When his horse was brought to him, he drew his sword and killed it, saying that the enemy had plenty of good horses which would be his if he won, and if he losthe would not need a horse at all. -Plutarch, "Crassus"

0073 BC-03-01 00:00:00

Spartacus Slave Revolt

Little is known about the slave Spartacus before the massive slave rebelllion but most scholars believe that he was a Thracian slave who served as gladiator after deserting his post in the Roman Auxillaries. After running away with 70 other gladiators to Mt. Vesuvius in 73 BCE word spread quickly. Soon slaves were joining his training camp from across the empire.Although the Roman commanders did not see him as a threat, the slaves rose to 120,000 strong and out manuveared the secondary legions. However just as things appeared to be going great for the slaves, division spread among the leaders. Spartacus wished to cross the alps while Crixus wanted to go straight to Rome. Dividing the army, Crixus took 30,000 slaves and was swiftly defeated. Spartacus led the remaining slaves south and won three more battles but he was losing men and resources. The Roman military became so frightened despite this and raised a large army under the new commander Marus Crassus and defeated Spartacus and his army at the Siler River.

0073 BC-03-01 00:00:00

Spartacus Slave Revolt

Plutarch who lived from 46-120 AD, was a Greek historian during the Roman occupation. From an early age he was pushed towards history going to special schools in order to follow in his fathers footsteps.He was also well versed in the world itself, travelling to many different territoies and nations in his youth. His works covered a broad range of topics with his "Moralia" books teaching about philosophy, religion, and morals while his "Bioi Parelleloi" or "Parallel Lives" talked about he heroic deeds and battles of famous Roman and Greek warriors and generals. In total Plutarch wrote around 227 publsihed works.

0073 BC-03-01 17:53:40

Spartacus Slave Revolt

Life of Spartacus: 111–71 BCE Period of Revolt: 73-71 BCE Life of Crixus: Unknown-72 BCE Marcus Crassus: 115 BC – 53 BCE

0080 BC-01-15 00:00:00

Catiline Conspiracy

Cicero, a famous author who lived in the first century during the roman Republic, wrote about his fight with Catiline.

0080 BC-01-15 00:00:00

Catiline Conspiracy

Catiline - enemy of the republic - who plotted to bring down the democratic institutions which make up the Roman state, was brought down by Cicero- an orator and hero of the republic.

0080 BC-01-15 00:00:00

Catiline Conspiracy

“How long will you abuse our patience, Catiline?” Cicero upholds the glory of Rome by verbally attacking Catiline and his attempts to tear down the Roman Republic.

0080 BC-01-15 00:00:00

Catiline Conspiracy

Gaius Marius, Lucius Cornelius Cinna and Gnaeus Papirius Carbo ruled during the conspiracy. Cicero was consul during the Catiline conspiracy.

0088 BC-05-01 08:01:22

Roman Civil Wars

The Roman Civil Wars (Pre Julius Caesar) Sulla's First Civil War (88-82) The war between Gaius Marius and Lucius Sulla began as a personal dispute between the two roman generals. Marius had his political allies remove Sulla from military command while fighting in the Mithridatic Wars in 89 BCE. Sulla, greatly angered by this marched his army in Campania and then travelled to Rome. After burning the lands of his political enemies and executed the tribunes. Marius quickly escaped to Northern Africa. However once Sulla had to leave to campaign in the roman territories, Marius returned with a vengeance and burned and killed nobles once more. Marius became sick and died in 86 BCE. Marius ally Cinna took control. After quelling the rebellion in the territories Sulla returned fueled with rage and routed his enemies near the Roman Colline Gate. After Sulla won he burned and killed some more nobles. It was actually Sulla that began the carrier of Crassus and was well loved by the soldiers. Sertorian War(80 BC to 72 BC) An offshoot of the Sulla conflicts. Quintus Sertorius became a rebel leader fighting for freedom in the territory of Hispania or Spain as well as in the Iberian Peninsula. Sertorius was eventually assassinated and the revolution fell apart. Lepidus rebellion (77 BC) Another offshoot of Sulla’s series of wars, Marcus Aemilius Lepidus attempted to seize Rome in the wake of Sulla’s death. He was defeated quickly however at the battle of Campus Martius. His son, despite his father's mistakes, became a great ally of the Caesars.

0088 BC-05-01 08:01:22

Roman Civil Wars

Author: Lucan Lucan Born in Roman Hispania in 39 AD and died in 65 AD How he collected his history: Lucan had powerful contacts within the Roman empire during his short life and thus had access to the many people that were related to the events he wrote about or the books they had written. However because of his age literary sources were his primary inspiration. Colorful Descriptions: Historic Value: Valued especially for his works in the Middle ages in the glorification of the roman empire and republic. Personal bias: As a wealthy Roman he probably appreciated the benefits of such. In order to maintain this lifestyle he was most likely positive of his friends history. Criticism: Not enough history, to much poetry within his writing. Over dramatised the wars effects on the people of the empire. Work is an epic poem, not made purely for history, but also for enjoyment. Author: Plutarch Born in Greece in 46 BCE to a historian philosopher father, he was trained to be a historian. Writing well over one hundred books and essays he became a defining historian of the time. During the Roman occupation of Rome he travelled the territories of Rome meeting warriors across the world. This translated into his famous work “Parallel Lives” in which he talks about the lives and noble acts of men in life and in combat. His other series of essays “Moralia” dealt with ethics, religion, and personal morals. Historic Value: Plutarch had a massive effect on western literature and gave them a foundation, especially during the Renaissance period and was a staple for both historians and humanists in the era. Personal Bias/Criticism: As Plutarch was writing about the daring exploits of men some of his work takes a more romantic side than what probably occurred. He also wanted to create strong morals and ethical themes that may not have existed. Collected History: Although he lived near the time of the occurrence of some of the events described in his books, he many relied on retellings and literature to craft his histories

0088 BC-05-01 08:01:22

Roman Civil Wars

"Wars worse than civil on Emathian plains, And crime let loose we sing; how Rome's high race Plunged in her vitals her victorious sword; Armies akin embattled, with the force Of all the shaken earth bent on the fray; And burst asunder, to the common guilt, A kingdom's compact; eagle with eagle met, Standard to standard, spear opposed to spear. Whence, citizens, this rage, this boundless lust To sate barbarians with the blood of Rome?" -Lucan, from his Bellum Civile (Civil War), 65 CE.

0088 BC-12-10 04:19:15

Roman Civil Wars

Marcus Aemilius Lepidus (120 BCE – 77 BCE) Lucius Sulla (138 BCE – 78 BCE) (82 -70s BCE) Political Presence Gaius Marius (157 BCE – 86 BCE) Quintus Sertorius (123 BCE – 72 BCE)

0133 BC-03-01 00:00:00

Historian

Not much of a historian himself, but he pieced together many other sources to write his 24 vol. Romaica. A conservative supporter of the imperial system, he was often critical of republican institutions and popular movements.

0133 BC-03-01 00:00:00

Reign

Father was Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (consul in 177, and praetor of Spain) Tiberius (elected tribune of the plebeians in 133) Gaius (elected tribune in 123)

0133 BC-03-01 00:00:00

The Gracchi

Tiberius - divided up large estates run by a few powerful slave owners, and wanted to give the land to numerous small farming families. Was assassinated by angry senators. Gaius - decided to store surplus of wheat during good years and distribute it to the poor during food shortages, made improvements in the conditions of foot soldiers in the Roman Army, started economic reforms aimed at reducing the state's debts, and judicial reforms involving the composition of juries.

0133 BC-03-01 00:00:00

Quote

“The sword was never carried into the assembly and there was no civil slaughter until Tiberius Gracchus, tribune and lawgiver, was the first to fall to internal commotion… Repeatedly the parties came into open conflict, often carrying daggers, and from time to time in the temples, the assemblies, or the Forum, some tribune, praetor, consul or candidate for these offices… would be slain. Unseemly violence prevailed almost constantly, together with a shameful contempt for law or justice.”

0264 BC-03-01 00:00:00

Quotations

“One man by delaying restored the state to us.”

0264 BC-03-01 00:00:00

Quintus Ennius(239-169)

Ennius liked being part of the inner circle of the educated in Rome, and his friendships with the authorities during the Punic Wars contributed to his well rounded records of the wars. Cicero and Lucretius admired him, while Virgil and Ovid borrowed his material. Because of the love for elitism, he showed “sympathy for integrity and noble character” found in his tragedies which caused a shift in the focus of Roman literature to the educated.

0264 BC-03-01 00:00:00

Mulitiple Rulers Involved

Two consuls, Marcus Atilius Regulus and Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus, took charge during the Punic Wars, especially participating in actual battles. Teuta was the queen of Illyria who tried to invade Rome, but the Roman naval power was too developed. Of course, Hannibal was the leading enemy of the Romans during the Second Punic War, using geurilla warfare tactics but ultimately failing.

0264 BC-03-01 00:00:00

The Punic Wars

Beginning in 264 BC, The Punic Wars proved to be the start of Rome's naval advancement and territorial expansion, mostly across the Mediterranean Sea. By slowly taking islands like Sicily and Sardinia from Carthage, Rome was hastily taking over the Mediterranean area. By the time Carthage recovered from the Second Punic War, they had other threats besides Rome, so Rome emerged as victor when consul Scipio seized the city Carthage.

0280 BC-03-26 18:57:55

Dio Cassius

A member of the Greco-Roman Aristocracy, Dio Cassius wrote his histories with a pro-Roman bias. He resented democracy and institutions similar to it. As a historian, he wrote from a more theoretical perspective. He often embellished certain events in an effort to make them more memorable.

0280 BC-03-26 18:57:55

Pyrrhus of Epirus

Pyrrhus was an excellent soldier and a competent politician. He gained a reputation as a military commander in a dynastic struggle between Alexander and Antipater. For his efforts in supporting Alexander, he was rewarded with many new territories. He further increased his power through marriages with the daughters of barbarian chieftains and kings.

Roman Republic (7th period Latin 3/4/AP)

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