English Language Learner Timeline

This highlights the important events that have helped shape Bilingual education in California as well as on the National level

Categories of events include: Legislation that has directly affected LEP students, Landmark events in education, Significant research on LEP education, and research that might influence the future of LEP education.

1919-03-30 01:37:10

State restriction of foreign language education

In response to xenophobia caused by WWI, 32 states enact laws to hinder the teaching of German. Some schools go so far as to outlaw the teaching of all foreign languages

1923-03-30 01:37:10

Meyer V. Nebraska

Saw a 1919 Nebraska law that restricted the teaching of a foreign language as violating the due process clause of the fourteenth amendment.

1927-09-01 00:00:00

Farrington v Tokushige (Hawaii)

Overturned the 1925 “Foreign Language School Act of the Territory of Hawaii”. This law essentially took the 163 privately-owned foreign language schools and put them under government control. The US Supreme Court saw this as violating the due process clause of the fifth amendment and the fourteenth amendment.

1931-03-30 01:37:10

Lemon Grove Incident (California)

The US first successful school desegregation case. The On March 30, 1931, the Superior Court of San Diego County ruled that the school boards attempt to segregate 75 Mexican and Mexican-American students was a violation of California state law.

1946-06-15 21:26:18

Mendez v Westminster School District et al (California)

Federal court case that challenged that students of mexican ancestry were being forced to attend separate schools in the Westminster, Garden Grove, Santa Ana and El Modena school districts. While this law did not overturn the “separate but equal” interpretation of the 14th amendment that was implemented by Plessy v Ferguson, it did help pave the way for that action.

1947-06-19 19:25:32

Stainback v. Mo Hock Ke Kok Po (Hawaii)

Repealed the "Act Regulating the Teaching of Foreign Languages to Children." which was enacted to “protect children from the harm of learning a foreign language.” the court saw that there were benefits to learning a foreign language and overthrew the broad act that could be seen as a xenophobic reaction to WWII.

1954-05-17 10:59:41

Brown v Board of Education (1954)

a landmark United States Supreme Court case in which the Court declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. The decision overturned the Plessy v. Ferguson decision of 1896, which allowed state-sponsored segregation, insofar as it applied to public education.

1965-09-01 00:00:00

Elementary and Secondary Education Act

Part of President Lyndon B. Johnson's Great Society and the war on poverty. Congress allocated Federal funds to schools at a larger than ever rate. Aimed to bridge gap of lower performing students. The act was originally authorized through 1965; however, the government has reauthorized the act every five years since its enactment.

1967-04-20 18:04:20

Bilingual Education Act

Title VII of the ESEA. Created during the re-authorization of the ESEA. demonstrated "a shift from the notion that students should be afforded equal educational opportunity to the idea that educational policy should work to equalize academic outcomes, even if such equity demanded providing different learning environments.”

1967-12-19 01:07:48

Senate Bill 53 (California)

Signed by Governor Ronald Reagan, this state act repealed the English-only mandate that had been in place for the past 95 years and authorized bilingual education in California schools.

1974-09-18 06:45:48

Lau v Nichols

"There is no equality of treatment merely by providing students with the same facilities, textbooks, teachers and curriculum; for students who do not understand English are effectively foreclosed from any meaningful education." Citing the Civil Rights act of 1964 This case set a precedent that expanded the rights of students to receive a public education that accommodates their language of origin.

1974-11-01 13:49:47

Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974

Required schools and districts to take “appropriate action” in overcoming barriers to students equal participation in school. This “appropriate action” was defined by later cases such as Lau V. Nichols.

1976-10-20 20:29:07

Chacone-Mascone Bilingual Bicultural Educational Act (California)

was the first state legislative act that mandated school districts to provide language minority students with not only some bilingual education but equal educational opportunities despite their limited proficiency in English. This Act was a response to the Lau v. Nichols 1974.

1980-09-03 17:29:22

Jim Cummins

Makes the distinction between Basic Interpersonal Communicative Skills (BICS) and Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP). While the former is attainable in a relatively short period of time, the latter requires utilization of language in a more sophisticated manner thus requiring more time to acquire.

1981-06-21 03:32:35

Castaneda V. Pickard

The US court of appeals established a system for which bilingual education programs in public schools must comply to be in accordance with the Equal Educational Opportunities Act of 1974. The Bilingual program must adhere to “sound educational theory”, it must be “implemented effectively with resources for personnel, instructional materials, and space.” And after a trial period it must be proven to be effective.

1982-09-03 17:29:22

Stephen Krashen

There is a distinction in ELL students between learning and acquiring language. Learning happens during formal instruction, and often dictates the rules of language. Acquisition occurs in an environment similar to that of the first language learned. An environment with comprehensible input.

1983-09-03 17:29:22

Ray Chesterfield et al

In classes that are predominantly English speaking, ELL students are more proficient in speaking with the students, in classes that are predominantly Spanish-speaking ELL students speak English more proficiently with the instructor. TESOL Quarterly Volume 17, Issue 3, pages 401–419, September 1983

1983-10-05 17:39:39

A Nation at Risk

Its publication is considered a landmark event in modern American educational history. Among other things, the report contributed to the ever-growing assertion that American schools were failing, and it touched off a wave of local, state, and federal reform efforts.

1986-09-03 17:29:22

Beyond Language

Published by the California Dept of education in an effort to integrate culturally responsive instruction, this document adressed the sociocultural factors that can affect an ELL’s experience.

1987-04-28 22:31:07

Robert Slavin

Studied grouping arrangements in non-ELL content areas found that keeping students of differing ability levels separate for the entire day leads to lower performance for the less proficient students. Mixing levels can enhance achievement if it is tailored to students level and frequently assessed and regrouped. Possible ramifications for ELD classes.

2000-04-28 22:31:07

Norris and Ortega

Explicit instruction involving explanations to students of the specific rules they should know or be aware of for particular forms. Pointing out the forms v simply exposing them to the language results in greater success.

2001-01-11 18:21:26

No Child Left Behind

Ushered in our current era of standards based education reform. The thought that high standards and measurable goals will lead to greater individual achievement. Essentially a reauthorization of the ESEA.

2001-09-08 14:02:24

•The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act

The NCLB version of the Bilingual Education Act. Caps funding for bilingual education programs at half of what it previously was and does not require that any bilingual education programs undergo periodic evaluation, a measure required by the Castenada v. Pickard court case.

2005-03-11 17:36:16

Foster & Ohta

Interactions between ELD and English-proficient students must be carefully organized with attention paid to the tasks students are engaging in, the training of English-proficient students, and the proficiency of the learners themselves.

2006-03-11 17:36:16

Saunders & Obrien

Drawing from several studies they concluded that putting ELD students with English speakers takes careful planning if you wish to see aN actual gains in English language proficiency for the ELD students.

2006-03-11 17:36:16

Russel and Spada

Corrective feedback has shown to be beneficial in teaching ELD students

English Language Learner Timeline

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