Reframing Afrofuturism, a Historical, Spiritual and Conceptual History by Floyd Webb

Afrofuturism: Timeline of the Alterverse;xNLx; ;xNLx;Reframing Afrofuturism, a Historical, Spiritual and Conceptual History;xNLx;;xNLx;Reconnecting to a key core, functional, active and living concepts. of the ideological continuum of resistance to cultural domination. ;xNLx;

1850-09-03 01:22:26

This is a work-in-progress

I have stopped in the early 2000s to compile additional info through 2014 with help from the community of Afrofuturists. There are probably errors and omissions as it began as a brain dump of everything I knew and forgot about the "alterverse," to use Sun Ra's teachings, or what we have come to know as "AfroFuturism." Any questions, comments, or corrections, and or criticisms should be directed to

1859-01-06 13:18:33

Martin Delaney

In 1859, Martin Delany (1812–1885), one of the foremost U.S. black political leaders, began publishing Blake, or the Huts of America as a serial in the Anglo-American Magazine.

1859-05-05 23:31:43

Blake, or the Huts of America (1859)

No speculative fiction was as radical as Martin Delany's Blake, or the Huts of America, partially published as a serial in the Anglo-American Magazine in 1859 and then republished as a whole in the Weekly Anglo-American in 1861 and 1862. In 1859 Delany was, along with Frederick Douglass, one of the foremost black leaders of the time.

1892-01-01 13:18:33

Frances Harper

The 1892 novel Iola Leroy by Frances Harper (1825–1911), the leading black woman poet of the 19th century, has been described as the first piece of African-American utopian fiction on account of its vision of a peaceful and equal polity of men and women, whites and former slaves.

1892-01-01 13:18:33

Sutton Griggs (1872–1933)

1899 novel Imperium in Imperio by Sutton Griggs (1872–1933) ends with preparations for a violent takeover of Texas for African Americans by a secret black government.

1899-01-01 13:18:33

Charles W. Chesnutt

Charles Waddell Chesnutt (June 20, 1858 – November 17, 1932) was a mixed race author, essayist, political activist and lawyer, best known for his novels and short stories exploring complex issues of racial and social identity in the post-Civil War South. Many families of free people of color were formed in the colonial and early Federal period; some attained education and property; in addition there were many mixed-race slaves, who freedmen after the war were part of the complex society of the South. Two of his books were adapted as silent films in 1926 and 1927 by the African-American director and producer Oscar Micheaux.

1899-01-01 13:18:33

The Conjure Woman

The Conjure Woman is the title of an 1899 collection of seven stories by Charles W. Chesnutt, an important African-American writer from the post-Civil War South; it was his first book. The stories deal with the racial issues facing the South after the war, often through the comments of the character of Uncle Julius McAdoo. A freed slave, he tells the stories to John and Annie, a white couple from the North, who are visiting in their search for property, as they are thinking of moving south (because of Annie's health) and of buying an old plantation in "Patesville", North Carolina. Uncle Julius's stories are derived from African-American folk tales and include many supernatural occurrences built around hoodoo conjuring traditions. They are less idealistic and romanticized than John's understanding of Southern culture. They tell of black resistance to and revenge against white culture. The stories' basis in folk traditions earned publication of the collection. Chesnutt had originally submitted a proposed collection that included only two or three conjure tales, but the editors felt that these were the best and most innovative part of the collection. They asked him to write more in order to have enough for a full book. The book was adapted by Oscar Micheaux as a silent film released as The Conjure Woman in 1926.

1899-01-06 13:18:33

Imperium in Imperio (1899)

Sutton Elbert Griggs (June 19, 1872 - January 2, 1933) was an African-American author, Baptist minister, and social activist. He is best known for his novel Imperium in Imperio, a utopian work that envisions a separate African-American state within the United States. Griggs's first novel follows a familiar formula: two childhood friends are separated by wealth, education, skin tone, and political outlook; one is a militant and one an integrationist. A traumatic incident galvanizes the more moderate friend into action, and the two work together to redress the injustice. Imperium in Imperio (1899) follows this plotline with a startling twist: the revelation of an African American "empire within an empire," a shadow government complete with a Congress based in Waco, Texas. The light-skinned and more militant Bernard Belgrave who has been hand-picked to serve as president advocates a takeover of the Texas state government, while the dark-skinned Belton Piedmont argues for assimilation and cooperation. Bernard reluctantly has Belton executed as a traitor only after Belton resigns from the Imperium (an act that is tantamount to suicide), leaving the potentially violent and unstable Bernard in control of the Imperium as the novel ends.[5]

1900-01-06 13:18:33

Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins

Pauline Elizabeth Hopkins (1859 – August 13, 1930) was a prominent African-American novelist, journalist, playwright, historian, and editor. She is considered a pioneer in her use of the romantic novel to explore social and racial themes. Her work reflects the influence of W. E. B. Du Bois. Her first known work, a musical play called Slaves’ Escape; or, The Underground Railroad (later revised as Peculiar Sam; or, The Underground Railroad), first performed in 1880, is one of the earliest-known literary treatments of slaves escaping to freedom. Her short story "Talma Gordon", published in 1900, is often named as the first African-American mystery story. She explored the difficulties faced by African-Americans amid the racist violence of post-Civil War America in her first novel, Contending Forces: A Romance Illustrative of Negro Life North and South, published in 1900. She published three serial novels between 1901 and 1903 in the African American periodical Colored American Magazine: Hagar's Daughter: A Story of Southern Caste Prejudice, Winona: A Tale of Negro Life in the South and Southwest, and Of One Blood: Or, The Hidden Self. She sometimes used the pseudonym Sarah A. Allen. Hopkins spent the remainder of her years working as a stenographer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, from burns sustained in a house fire.

1900-01-10 23:31:43

Edward Austin Johnson (1860–1944)

Edward Austin Johnson (1860–1944) was an attorney who became the first African-American member of the New York state legislature when he was elected to the New York State Assembly in 1917. Light Ahead for the Negro, was his 1904 novel Biography Johnson was born in slavery in Wake County, North Carolina. Johnson, in his early education, was taught by a free colored woman, Miss Nancy Walton.[1] He continued his education at Washington High School. He then attended Atlanta University and worked as a school principal from 1883 until 1891, first in Atlanta and then in Raleigh, North Carolina. Meanwhile, he wrote A School History of the Negro Race in America, which was the first textbook by a black author to be approved by the North Carolina State Board of Education for use in the public schools. Johnson earned a law degree at Shaw University in 1891 and thereafter practiced law in the Raleigh area while also teaching at Shaw. Johnson won every case that he argued before the North Carolina Supreme Court. From 1899 to 1907, he was an assistant to the U.S. Attorney for eastern North Carolina. Johnson became active in the Republican Party and served a term on Raleigh's city board of aldermen. In 1907, Johnson left North Carolina for New York City. He became active in Harlem and in the Republican Party there. He was a member of the New York State Assembly (New York Co., 19th D.) in 1918. In 1928, he ran for Congress in the 21st District but lost to Royal H. Weller. Despite his loss, he received the greatest number of votes from the Republican party in his district.[2] Even with the loss of his sight in 1925, he continued to work in politics and on various projects that supported his country and race.[3]

1900-05-03 23:31:43

George Schuyler (1895–1977)

George Schuyler (1895–1977), the noted conservative U.S. critic and writer, published several works of speculative fiction in the 1930s, using the framework of pulp fiction to explore racial concerns.

1902-01-06 13:18:33

Of One Blood (1902)

Of One Blood (1902) by the prolific writer and editor Pauline Hopkins (1859–1930), describing the discovery of a hidden civilization with advanced technology in Ethiopia, is the first Lost Race novel by an African-American author.

1904-05-05 23:31:43

Light Ahead for The Negro

Light Ahead for the Negro, a 1904 novel by Edward A. Johnson (1860–1944), is an early attempt at imagining a realistic post-racist American society, describing how by 2006 Negroes are encouraged to read books and given land by the government. "Light Ahead for the Negro (1904) is a novel by Edward A. Johnson. Written while Johnson was working as an assistant U. S. Attorney in North Carolina, the novel is a groundbreaking work of speculative fiction and Afrofuturism from a pioneering African American politician and lawyer. "I glanced through the floor but the earth was almost indistinguishable, and was disappearing rapidly. There was absolutely nothing that I could do. I looked up again at my friend, who was clambering up rather clumsily, I remember thinking at the moment. ...] Involuntarily, I closed my eyes for a moment. When I opened them again, he was gone My feelings were indescribable. I commenced to lose consciousness, owing to the altitude and the ship was ascending more rapidly every moment. Finally I became as one dead." The son of an abolitionist applies to work at a school for African American children in Georgia. In June 1906, he joins a wealthy friend on a flight from New York City to Mexico, boarding an experimental airship at a West 59th Street pier. When an instrument failure sends them spiraling into the upper atmosphere, the narrator loses consciousness. One hundred years later, he lands on a lawn in Georgia, awakening to discover a utopian society in which anti-blackness has been completely eradicated. With a beautifully designed cover and professionally typeset manuscript, this edition of Edward A. Johnson's Light Ahead for the Negro is a classic work of African American literature reimagined for modern readers."

1914-05-22 02:22:26

Sun Ra

Sun Ra (1914– 1993) was an innovative jazz composer, bandleader, piano and synthesiser player, who came to be known as much for his Cosmic Afro-futurist Philosophy as for his phenomenal musical compositions and performances. As both a black male and an independent producer, Sun Ra defied racist institutions and beliefs.

1920-05-10 23:31:43

The Comet

W.E.B. Du Bois's 1920 story The Comet, in which only a black man and a white woman survive an apocalyptic event, is the first work of post-apocalyptic fiction in which African-Americans appear as subjects.

1927-11-12 02:22:26

Jean Renoir - Sur un Air de Charleston (1927)

AfroFuturism and the French Surrealists it’s the year 2028, a holocaust has taken place in all of Europe, its countries in ruin. The continent of Africa, on the other hand, has prospered. Its countries intact with visible signs of futuristic Islamic architecture in the landscape. A single Central African explorer travels to Paris, France and runs into a lone woman amongst the desolate city. The Central African explorers’ (possibly Chad or Cameroon?) ship is arguably one of the most innovative and visionary designs in sci-fi film history. A solid silver sphere minus lights, windows, doors or any other visible markings that would relate it to other sci-fi rockets of the time like the old broom handle and cardboard funnel spaceships suspended with strings from those Buck Rogers/Flash Gordon serials of the 1930s.

1931-01-02 00:00:00

Thomas Mofolo

Thomas Mofolo was born in Khojane, Lesotho, on 22 December 1876. He was educated in the local schools of the Paris Evangelical Missionary Society and obtained a teacher's certificate in 1898.

1931-01-02 13:18:33

Black No More: Being an Account of the Strange and Wonderful Workings of Science in the Land of the Free, AD 1933-1940 (1931)

Black No More: Being an Account of the Strange and Wonderful Workings of Science in the Land of the Free, AD 1933-1940 is a 1931 Harlem Renaissance era satire on American race relations by George S. Schuyler (pronounced Sky-ler). He targets both the KKK and NAACP in condemning the ways in which race functions as both an obsession and a commodity in early twentieth-century America. The central premise of the novel is that an African American scientist invents a process that can transform blacks into whites. Those who have internalized white racism, those who are tired of inferior opportunities socially and economically, and those who simply want to expand their sexual horizons, line up to be transformed. As the country "whitens", the economic importance of racial segregation in the South as a means of maintaining elite white economic and social status becomes increasingly apparent.

1931-01-30 13:18:33

Boxer AL Brown and Marcel Griaule

In 1931 the black bantamweight boxer Al Brown held an exhibition match in Paris to finance the research of Anthropologist Marcel Griaule with members of the Mission Dakar-Djibouti with the Musée d'Ethnographie du Trocadéro. This research lead to his life-long occupation with the cosmology of the Dogon people and his book "Conversations with Ogotemmeli."

1931-06-22 02:22:26

Chaka (1931)

Chaka is the most famous novel by the writer Thomas Mofolo of Lesotho. Written in Sotho, it is a mythic retelling of the story of the rise and fall of the Zulu emperor-king Shaka. It was named one of the twelve best works of African literature of the 20th century by a panel organized by Ali Mazrui.

1932-01-02 00:00:00

Nnanga Kôn (1932)

Nnanga Kôn, a 1932 novel by Jean-Louis Njemba Medou, covers the disastrous first contact of white colonialists with the Bulu people. It became so popular in Medou's native Cameroon that it has become the basis of local folklore.

1934-01-02 13:18:33

Gandoki (1934)

Gandoki by Muhammadu Bello Kagara The deeds of rulers in a mythic version of Nigeria's past past,

1934-07-12 19:51:01

Ruwan Bagaja (1934)

Ruwan Bagaja by Abubakar Imam.

1936-01-02 13:18:33

Black Empire (1936-1938)

Black Empire, by George S. Schuyler, 1936-1938 Black Empire, by George S. Schuyler, 1936-1938 Also published serially and actually consisting of two novels, The Black Internationale and Black Empire, Schuyler satirizes the ideas of how to achieve racial equality contemporary with his time, mostly through the use of a evil genius and lots and lots of money. A reimagined future, though I'm still not clear on whether it's supposed to be a dystopia or a eutopia. Pretty darn good, if taken with a touch of dark humor. Also published serially and actually consisting of two novels, The Black Internationale and Black Empire, Schuyler satirizes the ideas of how to achieve racial equality contemporary with his time, mostly through the use of a evil genius and lots and lots of money. A reimagined future, though I'm still not clear on whether it's supposed to be a dystopia or a eutopia. Pretty darn good, if taken with a touch of dark humor.

1936-03-20 19:51:01

Lee "Scratch" Perry

Lee "Scratch" Perry CD (born Rainford Hugh Perry, Born 20 March 1936, Kendal, Jamaica) is a seminal Jamaican reggae producer noted for his innovative studio techniques and production values. Perry was one of the pioneers in the development of dub music with his early adoption of effects and remixing to create new instrumental or vocal versions of existing reggae tracks.[2] Perry has worked with Bob Marley and the Wailers, Junior Murvin, the Congos and Max Romeo. He is a long time member of the Rastafari movement.

1938-02-22 00:00:00

Ishmael Reed

Poet, essayist, playwright, and novelist Ishmael Reed was born in 1938 in Chattanooga, Tennessee. He was raised in Buffalo, New York, and attended the University of New York at Buffalo. He is the author of several collections of poetry, including: New and Collected Poems 1964-2007 (Da Capo Press, 2007), which won the Gold Medal in poetry at the California Book Awards; New and Collected Poems (Atheneum, 1988); A Secretary to the Spirits (NOK, 1978); Chattanooga (Random House, 1973); Conjure (1972); and Catechism of D Neoamerican HooDoo Church (Paul Brennan, 1970). Reed has also written numerous novels, including: Juice! (2011); Japanese by Spring (1993); The Terrible Twos (1982); Flight to Canada (1976); The Last Days of Louisiana Red (1974); Yellow Back Radio Broke Down (1969); and The Free-Lance Pallbearers.

1941-06-22 02:22:26

Amour de Féticheuse (1941)

In 1941, the Togolese novelist Félix Couchoro (1900–1968) wrote the magical realist romance novel Amour de Féticheuse.

1942-04-01 02:22:26

Samuel R Delany

Samuel R. Delany (born 1 April 1942) is an award-winning science fiction author. He has written works that have garnered substantial critical acclaim, including the novels Nova, The Einstein Intersection, Hogg, and Dhalgren. He is a professor of Comparative Literature and Creative Writing at Temple University, and is also known in the academic world as a literary critic.

1942-06-22 02:22:26

Octavia E. Butler

Octavia Estelle Butler was an American science fiction writer. A multiple-recipient of both the Hugo and Nebula awards, Butler was one of the best-known women in the field.

1945-01-02 13:18:33

Arremuňň (1945)

The story Yayne Abäba in the 1945 collection Arremuňň by Mäkonnen Endalkaččäw, an Ethiopian writer writing in Amharic, is notable as an early work of Muslim science fiction, describing the adventures of a teenage Amhara girl sold into slavery.

1949-01-06 13:18:33

Sun Ra buys a Solovox, A primitive electronic Instrument.

They performed a duet featuring the Solovox, a primitive electronic instrument that Sonny had picked up back in 1941, while still in Birmingham.

1950-11-12 02:22:26

The Martial Chronicles: Way Up In The Middle of The Air

The Martian Chronicles is a 1950 science fiction short story collection by Ray Bradbury that chronicles the colonization of Mars by humans fleeing from a troubled and eventually atomically devastated Earth, and the conflict between aboriginal Martians and the new colonists. The book lies somewhere between a short story collection and an episodic novel, containing stories Bradbury originally published in the late 1940s in science fiction magazines. The stories were loosely woven together with a series of short, interstitial vignettes for publication. is a 1950 science fiction short story collection by Ray Bradbury that chronicles the colonization of Mars by humans fleeing from a troubled and eventually atomically devastated Earth, and the conflict between aboriginal Martians and the new colonists. The book lies somewhere between a short story collection and an episodic novel, containing stories Bradbury originally published in the late 1940s in science fiction magazines. The stories were loosely woven together with a series of short, interstitial vignettes for publication.

1951-07-12 17:21:15

The Illustrated Man: The Other Foot

The Illustrated Man is a 1951 book of eighteen science fiction short stories by Ray Bradbury that explores the nature of mankind. A recurring theme throughout the eighteen stories is the conflict of the cold mechanics of technology and the psychology of people. The unrelated stories are tied together by the frame device of "the Illustrated Man," a vagrant with a tattooed body whom the unnamed narrator meets. The man's tattoos, allegedly created by a time-traveling woman, are animated and each tell a different tale. All but one of the stories had been published previously elsewhere, although Bradbury revised some of the texts for the book's publication. The concept of the Illustrated Man would later be reused by Bradbury as an antagonistic character in Something Wicked This Way Comes, the tattoos coming to represent the souls of sinful victims of a mysterious carnival. The book was made into a 1969 film starring Rod Steiger and Claire Bloom. It was adapted by Howard B. Kreitsek from the stories "The Veldt," "The Long Rain," and "The Last Night of the World." It was directed by Jack Smight

1952-03-01 02:22:26

Steven Barnes

Barnes, was born on March 1, 1952 in Los Angeles, California. He has had a varied education, including a secondary education at Los Angeles High School. He continued at Pepperdine University, majoring in Communication Arts. He is a certified hypnotherapist, trained at the Transformative Arts Institute in San Anselmo, California.

1953-04-09 02:22:26

Judgement Day

William Gaines waged a number of battles with the Comics Code Authority in an attempt to keep his magazines free from censorship. In one particular example noted by comics historian Digby Diehl, Gaines threatened Judge Charles Murphy, the Comics Code Administrator, with a lawsuit when Murphy ordered EC to alter the science-fiction story "Judgment Day", in Incredible Science Fiction #33 (Feb. 1956).[15] The story, by writer Al Feldstein and artist Joe Orlando, was a reprint from the pre-Code Weird Fantasy #18 (April 1953), inserted when the Code Authority had rejected an initial, original story, "An Eye For an Eye", drawn by Angelo Torres,[16] but was itself also "objected to" because of "the central character being black.

1959-01-02 02:22:26

The Cry of Jazz (1959)

The Cry of Jazz is a 1959 documentary film by Ed Bland that connects jazz to African American history. It uses footage of Chicago's black neighborhoods and performances by Sun Ra, John Gilmore, and Julian Priester interspersed with scenes of musicians and intellectuals, both black and white, conversing at a jazz club. It has been credited with predicting the urban riots of the 1960s and 70s, and has also been called the first Hip-Hop film.[1][2] In 2010, this film was selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant". The Library of Congress had this to say of the film and its significance:

1960-12-20 02:22:26

Nalo Hopkinson

Nalo Hopkinson (born 1960) is a Jamaican science fiction and fantasy writer and editor. She currently lives and teaches in Riverside, California.[1] Her novels (Brown Girl in the Ring, Midnight Robber, The Salt Roads, The New Moon's Arms) and short stories such as those in her collection Skin Folk often draw on Caribbean history and language, and its traditions of oral and written storytelling. Hopkinson has edited two fiction anthologies (Whispers From the Cotton Tree Root: Caribbean Fabulist Fiction and Mojo: Conjure Stories). She was the co-editor with Uppinder Mehan for the anthology So Long Been Dreaming: Postcolonial Visions of the Future, and with Geoff Ryman for Tesseracts 9.

1962-04-01 02:22:26

The Jewels of Aptor (1962) -Sam Delany

The Jewels of Aptor is a 1962 science fantasy novel by Samuel R. Delany, his first published novel. It first appeared as an Ace Double F-173 together with Second Ending by James White. Later editions had a restored and revised text, as about a third of the text was originally excised by Ace Books

1964-10-01 02:22:26

Indaba, My Children (1964)

As a young man, Vusamazulu Credo Mutwa, a Zulu from the South African province of Natal, was determined to follow in the footsteps of his grandfather and become a tribal historian in order to keep the rich oral tradition of his culture alive. In this book, begun in response to the injustices against Africans and their culture, he sets these legends down in writing. He begins with the creation myth, when Ninavanhu-Ma, the Great Mother, created the human race. From there, an epic unfolds, an intricate and vivid cultural tapestry populated by gods and mortals, cattle herders and supreme kings, witch doctors, lovers, grave diggers, warriors, and handmaidens. The story continues all the way up to the colonial era, when a Portuguese Kapitanoh and his crew arrive on the African shore. Indaba, My Children is a classic and indispensable resource for anyone interested in the cultural life of Africa and the human experience as it is filtered into myth.

1966-01-05 02:22:26

Tananarive Due

Tananarive Due (pronounced tah-nah-nah-REEVE doo) is the American Book Award-winning author of nine books, ranging from supernatural thrillers to a mystery to a civil rights memoir. An Sponsor Buy The Sacred Bombshell Handbook of Self-Love: The 11 Secrets of Feminine Power The Sacred Bombshell Handbook of Self-Love: The 11 Secrets of Feminine Power by Abiola Abrams Due has a B.S. in journalism from Northwestern University and an M.A. in English literature from the University of Leeds, England, where she specialized in Nigerian literature as a Rotary Foundation Scholar. Due currently teaches creative writing in the MFA program at Antioch University Los Angeles. Due has also taught at the Hurston-Wright Foundation's Writers' Week, the Clarion Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers' Workshop, and the summer Imagination conference at Cleveland State University.

1966-07-14 03:37:24

The Black Panther

Black Panther is a fictional superhero appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. The character was created by writer-editor Stan Lee and writer-artist Jack Kirby, first appearing in Fantastic Four #52 in the Silver Age of Comic Books. Wikipedia First appearance: Fantastic Four #52 (July 1966) Spouse: Storm Place of origin: Wakanda, Africa Creators: Stan Lee, Jack Kirby Son: Azari is the son of Black Panther and Storm

1969-11-12 02:22:26

Sasa and Zamani : African Concepts of Time

African Concepts of Time Mbiti maintains that an understanding of the African concept of time can help to explain the beliefs, and behaviors of the African people. Similarly, an understanding of the African concept of time is also key to understanding the mind-set of the early African slaves and offers entrée into the creation of the spirituals. A person experiences time partly in his own individual life, and partly through the society which goes back many generations before his own birth….[Time] moves 'backward' rather than 'forward'; and people set their minds not on future things, but chiefly on what has taken place….Time has to be experienced in order to make sense or to become real. John S. Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy For the African, time is equivalent to and can only consist of actual events – events that have just occurred, events that are taking place now, or events that will likely occur very shortly. Theirs is a two-dimensional concept of time that only minimally corresponds with Western ideas of the "present" and the "past." Mbiti identifies these dimensions as the Sasa period, which encompasses the recent past, the present, and the very immediate future, and the Zamani period, which corresponds with a deeper, more infinite past. The Sasa generally binds individuals and their immediate environment together. It is the period of conscious living. On the other hand, Zamani is the period of the myth, giving a sense of foundation or "security" to the Sasa period; and binding together all created things.…[h]istory moves "backward" from the Sasa period to the Zamani, from the moment of intense experience to the period beyond which nothing can go. John S. Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy Thus, for the African there is a past and a present, but there is essentially no such thing as a future. The African examines what is happening around him and looks back at things that have occurred in order to make meaning and orient himself in time. Events that have not yet occurred and are not imminent are situated in the realm of "No-Time." The future is virtually absent because events which lie in it have not taken place, they have not been realized and cannot, therefore, constitute time. If however, events are certain to occur, or if they fall within the inevitable rhythm of nature, they at best constitute only potential time, not actual time…Actual time is therefore what is present and what is past. John S. Mbiti, African Religions and Philosophy Traditionally, Africans are most concerned with what is near; therefore the Sasa is the period of the most consequence because it is "where" or "when" they actually exist. The Sasa of the African slaves would have included the following events: "I was home. I was taken from my home. I have lost my ancestors and my village. My village and my ancestors have lost me. We are lost." If, for the African, time moves backward rather than forward, and time must be experienced in order to be real, then the only legitimate points of reference were things that were immediately happening or things that had already occurred. Therefore, in order to survive, the slaves were driven to create new events to inhabit their Sasa, in effect creating new time in order to deal with the trauma of slavery. Like the need for functional music, this temporal need might also be viewed as "characteristically African." It is this view of time, bounded by a spiritual ontology and the need for musical functionality, which caused the creation of the spirituals.

1971-04-08 00:00:00

Sun Ra Berkeley Lecture: Black Man and the Cosmos.

In 1971, he served as artist-in-residence at UC Berkeley and offered a spring semester lecture, African-American Studies 198, also known as “Sun Ra 171,” “The Black Man in the Universe,” or “The Black man in the Cosmos.”

1971-05-06 00:00:00

Black Man and the Cosmos Reading List: Sun Ra Lecture, Berkeley, Spring 1971

Books assigned by Sun Ra for his lecture course, African-American Studies 198: The Black Man in the Universe. The classes were offered as part of the regular Spring semester at the University of California, Berkeley, 1971.

1973-10-01 02:22:26

Ganja and Hess

After being stabbed with an ancient, germ-infested knife, a doctor's assistant finds himself with an insatiable desire for blood.

1974-04-08 01:22:26

Nnedi Okorafor

Nnedi Okorafor (full name: Nnedimma Nkemdili Okorafor (previously known as Nnedi Okorafor-Mbachu) is a Nigerian-American writer of fantasy, science fiction, and speculative fiction.

1974-07-11 02:22:26

Space is the Place (film)

Sun Ra, who has been reported lost since his European tour in June 1969, lands on a new planet in outerspace with his crew "The Arkestra" and decides to settle African Americans on this planet. The medium of transportation he had chosen is music. He travels back in time and returns to the Chicago strip club where he used to play piano with the name "Sonny Ray" in 1943.

1976-04-15 13:18:33

Patternmaster: 1st Book by Octavia Butler

The Patternist is a telepathic race, commanded by the Patternmaster, whose thoughts can destroy, heal, rule. Coransee, son of the ruling Patternmaster, wants the throne and will stop at nothing to get it, including venture into the wild mutant-infested hills to destroy a young apprentice--his equal and his brother.

1981-06-22 02:22:26

Dream Park (1981)

Dream Park is a 1981 novel written by Larry Niven and Steven Barnes set in a futuristic amusement park of the same name. It was later expanded into a series of books.

1981-11-12 01:22:26


Imaro is a sword and sorcery novel written by Charles R. Saunders, and published by DAW Books in 1981. It may have been one of the first forays into the sword and sorcery genre by a black author.[1] The novel is a collection of six short stories ("Mawanzo", "Turkhana Knives", "The Place of Stones", "Slaves of the Giant Kings", "Horror in the Black Hills", and "The City of Madness") which were originally published in Dark Fantasy, a fanzine published by Canadian comic book artist Gene Day during the 1970s. Imaro was the first book in a proposed series of novels about the eponymous hero set in the fantasy world of Nyumbani, but a lawsuit by the Edgar Rice Burroughs estate over a poorly chosen cover quote (The Epic Novel of a Black Tarzan) caused a one-month delay in shipping as the books had to be reprinted which led to poor sales.


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