Egypt's Revolution: 3 Years On

A timeline of post-Mubarak Egypt

2011-01-25 09:05:53

Protests Break Out

Nationwide protests break out across Egypt on January 25, 2011 on what is dubbed the “Day of Anger.” Organized by various groups including the We Are All Khaled Said, the April 6 Youth Movement, Kefaya and Mohamed ElBaradei’s National Association for Change, the protests are driven by demands for security sector reform, and a call for an end to police abuses. Khaled Said, an Egyptian man who was killed by police in June 2010, became the driving force behind the protests.

2011-01-26 01:11:44

Protests Continue

Protests grow in number, intensifying with varying degrees of violence throughout Egypt. On January 27, Mohamed ElBaradei said, "The people have broken the barrier of fear. There is no going back.”

2011-01-28 01:11:44

Day of Rage

Dubbed the Friday of Anger, protests show no sign of abating as the government continues to take measures in attempt to quash dissent.

2011-01-29 01:22:17

Omar Suleiman Named Vice President

50,000 protesters gather in Tahrir Square, ignoring curfew restrictions. Omar Suleiman is sworn in as vice president and Ahmed Shafiq as the new prime minister.

2011-01-31 10:30:51

Army Says it will not Attack Protesters

The army is ordered to fire live ammunition on protesters but refuses. The military tells protesters they will not attack them.

2011-01-31 10:30:51

Mubarak Says He Will Not Seek Reelection

Mubarak says he will step down in September, as US President Barack Obama urges an immediate and peaceful transition.

2011-02-02 10:30:51

Camel Battle

As Internet access is restored in Egypt, the nation witnesses one of the bloodiest days of the 18-day uprising. Pro-Mubarak supporters riding horses and camels armed with swords, whips and weapons attack the protester in Tahrir. Allegedly hired thugs of the regime, the Ministry of Interior denied its involvement in the attack.

2011-02-11 12:47:59

Mubarak Steps Down

After 18 days of protests and hundreds killed, Vice President Omar Suleiman announces Mubarak’s resignation. The Supreme Council of the Armed Forces, a governing body of 21 officers in the military, assumes leadership of the country.

2011-03-05 12:47:59

Protesters Storm State Security Headquarters

In Cairo, protesters storm the State Security headquarters in Nasr City retrieving documents, and looking for detainees.

2011-03-05 12:47:59

Sectarian Clashes in Atfeeh

In Atfeeh in Helwan, sectarian clashes break out after a church was demolished. The Armed Forces began rebuilding the church on March 13

2011-03-08 15:28:10

13 Killed in Coptic Protest in Moqattam

Manshayet Nasr in Moqattam witnesses violent sectarian clashes as Copts protest the attack on the Atfeeh church. As around 1,000 Copts gathered in protest, they are attacked by hundreds of people with molotov cocktails, knives and sticks. 13 are killed and 140 injured. Eyewitnesses said the people attacking the protesters did so as soldiers watched on and did not intervene.

2011-03-09 00:00:00

March Constitutional Referendum

Egyptians take to the polls for the first time after Mubarak’s ouster in a referendum on constitutional amendments to the 1971 constitution proposed by the Supreme Council of Armed Forces (SCAF). The amendments, meant to set the legal framework for the post-Mubarak democratic transition, include limiting the presidential term, stipulate the appointment of a vice president, and outline the conditions for presidential bids. The amendments are approved by 77 percent of voters, with a 41 percent voter turnout. Islamists push for a ‘yes’ vote, framing it as a vote in favor of ‘Sharia,’ since the amendments maintained the role of Sharia in the constitution, while liberal forces call for a ‘no’ vote.

2011-03-09 15:28:10

Tahrir Sit-in Violently Dispersed

A sit-in in Tahrir Square is violently dispersed by armed forces personnel, in one of the most violent attacks by the army on protesters since Mubarak’s ouster. Several activists are arrested and detained in the museum, among them singer Ramy Essam, and activist Samira Ibrahim. Ibrahim is among those who was subjected to a forced virginity test during her detention.

2011-03-23 15:28:10

New law criminalizes protests

The cabinet passes a law criminalizing protests to be enforced as long as emergency law is in place. The law carries with it a prison sentence and a fine of EGP 500,000.

2011-03-30 15:28:10

Additional Constitutional Amendments Announced

11 days after the results of the constitutional referendum are announced, the government announces additional constitutional amendments that were not included in the original vote.

2011-04-08 00:00:00

15 army officers join Tahrir protests

Mass protests against military rule are staged in Tahrir. Fifteen army officers, who later come to be known as the April 8 officers, join the protests. The military violently disperses the protest, arrests the soldiers, and at least one activist is killed.

2011-05-07 00:00:00

12 Killed in Sectarian Violence

Up to twelve are killed and over 200 injured in sectarian clashes in Imbaba after a group of around 500 hardline Salafis march on three churches, setting them on fire. The clashes began as Salafis alleged that the Church was holding a woman who had converted to Islam, against her will.

2011-05-14 01:11:44

Coptic Protest at Maspero Attacked

A protest stage by Coptic demonstrators at the State television building in Maspero, against the clashes in Imbaba, is attacked by unidentified assailants. The attack leaves two dead and at least 60 injured.

2011-05-22 00:00:00

150 Protesters Arrested at Israeli Embassy Protest

A protest staged in front of the Israeli embassy is violently dispersed by security forces. Police use live ammunition, rubber bullets and tear gas to disperse the protest. Over 150 are arrested and at least 350 injured.

2011-05-27 01:11:44

Second Day of Rage

Tens of thousands of protesters return to the streets in what is dubbed the Second Day of Rage. Protesters call for a “second revolution,” driven by human rights abuses and lack of reform in the months following Mubarak’s ouster.

2011-06-28 01:11:44

Balloon Theatre Attack

Families of martyred protesters are attacked at the Balloon Theatre in Cairo’s Agouza. The attacks prompt clashes between protesters and police, which quickly trigger mass protests the following day. According to the ministry of health, over 1,000 were injured in the clashes

2011-07-08 01:22:17

July Million Man March

A “Million Man March” is staged in Tahrir, followed by a sit-in. Protesters continue to call for the same demands: prosecution of former regime officials and police. Protesters also chant against military rule. The Muslim Brotherhood joined the protest, but was later accused of leaving the protest early in an attempt to sabotage it.

2011-07-29 10:30:51

Islamist Protest in Tahrir

The Muslim Brotherhood and Salafis stage a “million man demonstration” in which they call for the application of Sharia Law in Egypt. More than 30 political parties and groups who had originally decided to participate in the protest withdrew saying the day was “hijacked” by Islamist protesters.

2011-08-03 00:00:00

Mubarak Trial Begins

Dubbed the ‘Trial of the Century,’ Hosni Mubarak’s trial in which he faces charges of killing protesters begins. Mubarak appears in court, wheeled into the defendant’s cage on a bed, pleading not guilty to the charges. Mubarak’s sons, Alaa and Gamal, as well as former minister of interior, Habib al-Adly, also appeared in court.

2011-08-18 00:00:00

Five Egyptian Soldiers Killed in Israeli Border Raid

Eight Israelis are killed and more than 30 wounded in a bombing in Eliat by militants said to have crossed the border from Egypt. As tensions between the two nations are heightened, five Egyptian army personnel are killed during an Israeli raid, leading to more protests staged at the Israeli embassy, during which a protester scales the building and replaces the Israeli flag with an Egyptian one. A protest on September 9 sees the storming of the embassy by protesters.

2011-09-30 00:00:00

Aswan Church Burned Down

A 71 year old church in the village of Marinab in Aswan is attacked and set on fire. The attack on the church proves to be the spark for large Coptic protests in October. Christian-owned businesses are also attacked. The attacks were sparked due to renovations on the church which saw the church dome restored.

2011-10-09 00:00:00

Maspero Massacre

In October, Egypt’s Christian Coptic minority stage several protests in Cairo over continued sectarian attacks outside the capital city. A protest on October 5 is violently dispersed by the military police. An October 9 protest draw thousands demonstrating against the destruction of a church in Upper Egypt. As the armed forces move in to quell the protest, up to 27 Coptic protesters are killed, some crushed under army APCs.

2011-11-18 12:47:59

Islamist Join Mass Protest in Tahrir

Hundreds of thousands return to Tahrir Square, while protests are staged around Egypt, calling for the army to hand over power to a civilian government. Islamists join the protest due to the ‘supra-constitutional principles,’ SCAF wants to impose on the writing of a new constitution.

2011-11-19 01:11:44

Mohamed Mahmoud Clashes

Clashes between police and protesters break out in Mohamed Mahmoud Street, off of Tahrir Square on November 19, after families of martyrs of the January 25 uprising were attacked by unknown assailants. The clashes last six days, leaving almost 50 dead and hundreds injured, many of them blinded. It is later revealed that security forces deliberately targeted anti-military protesters’ eyes.

2011-11-28 12:47:59

First Post-Mubarak Parliament Elections

On November 28, the first post-Mubarak parliamentary elections begin, as Egyptians take to the polls for the second time since the uprising. The elections are staged over a period of three and a half months under the supervision of the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. About 54 percent of the eligible 50 million voters participate. Islamists dominated the elections, with the Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party winning 48 percent of the seats, followed by the Salafi Nour Party earning 28 percent of the seats.

2011-12-16 12:47:59

Cabinet Clashes

Clashes at the Egyptian cabinet break out in December after a sit-in is staged protesting the appointment of Mubarak-era minister, Kamal al-Ganzoury, as interim prime minister. The clashes last four days, leaving 24 dead and hundreds injured. During the clashes, a young woman, now known only as ‘the girl in the blue bra, is filmed being brutally beaten by military police.

2011-12-29 12:47:59

NGO Raid

Security forces raid the offices of seventeen local and international non-governmental and human rights organizations, among them the American organizations Freedom House, NDI and IRI, as well as the German organization, Konrad Adenauer Foundation. The US and German organizations are accused of operating without a license, and receiving funds from a foreign government without prior permission.

2012-01-23 10:30:51

First Parliamentary Session

Egypt’s first post-Mubarak parliament convenes for its opening session. Thousands march on the parliament, calling for the revolutions’ demands to be met.

2012-02-01 15:28:10

Port Said Massacre

In one of the worst incidents of violence in post-Mubarak Egypt, at least 79 people are killed and almost 1,000 injured in the Port Said stadium following a premier league match between the Al-Masry and Al-Ahly clubs. According to official media reports, Al-Masry fans wielding knives, swords, stones, bottles, and fireworks attacked the Al-Ahly fans. Hardcore football fans, known as Ultras, however, accuse security officials and the interim government of planning the massacre as punishment for their roles, both during the revolution and in post-revolutionary Egypt.

2012-02-11 12:47:59

Protest Against Egypt Cabinet

Dissatisfied with the pace of change and the cabinet which encompasses many holdover from the Mubarak regime, thousands take to the street in protest. They call for the removal of Ahmed Shafiq as Prime Minister

2012-04-10 15:28:10

First Constituent Assembly Suspended

A constituent assembly formed by the Islamist-dominated parliament is suspended amid accusations it is stacked with Islamist members, particularly from the ruling Muslim Brotherhood’s Freedom and Justice Party. The constitution drafting body is suspended by order of the Administrative Court.

2012-05-02 15:28:10

11 Supporters of Hazem Abu Ismail Killed

With Presidential elections approaching, Salafi candidate Hazem Salah Abu Ismail is disqualified from the race. His supporters stage a sit-in at the ministry of defense. An attack by unknown assailants leaves 11 of his supporters dead, and 100 injured.

2012-06-02 01:11:44

Mass Protests in Tahrir

During a mass protest in Tahrir Square, presidential runners-up Hamdeen Sabbbahi, Abdel-Moneim Abul-Fotouh and Khaled Ali call for the formation of a 'presidential council' as an alternative to the two final candidates.

2012-06-13 01:11:44

Second Constituent Assembly Announced

A second constituent assembly is announced, after political parties end a deadlock on how to select its members. The parliament elects the members of the constituent assembly. Upon election, the assembly includes 33 members of political parties, 7 women, 7 youth representatives, 8 Copts. As time passes secular members of the constituent assembly begin to withdraw in protest to what they describe as Islamist dominance of the process.

2012-06-14 00:00:00

Court Orders Parliament's Dissolution

Egypt’s first post-Mubarak parliament is dissolved by the Supreme Constitutional Court, on the grounds that the election of a third of its members was unconstitutional. The decision is viewed as a part of the power struggle between the Muslim Brotherhood and Islamists on one side and the SCAF on the other. The ruling came in the midst of presidential elections, and as a result, was viewed by political forces, including liberals, as a move by the SCAF to consolidate its rule. In July, one of Mohamed Morsi’s first moves as Egypt’s newly elected president, he attempts to restore the parliament, but is unsuccessful.

2012-06-24 01:11:44

Mohamed Morsi Elected Egypt's President

Muslim Brotherhood candidate Mohamed Morsi was declared Egypt’s first civilian president after two rounds of voting. In the first round, which took place May 23-24, Morsi was in the lead with almost 25 percent of the vote. Ahmed Shafik, the presidential candidate who represented the old order, having served as Mubarak’s last prime minister, followed closely with almost 24 percent of the votes. On May 28, thousands gather in Tahrir Square protesting the results of the first round, and Shafik’s headquarters is attacked. On June 2, presidential runners un, Hamdeen Sabbahy, Abdel Moneim Aboul Fotouh and Khaled Ali call for a “presidential council” as an alternative to the two candidates. The calls come to nothing, and on June 15, more protests are staged against Shafik’s candidacy. In the run offs, taking place on June 16-17, Morsi won with almost 52 percent of the vote. He swore a symbolic oath in Tahrir on June 29, while swearing his official oath in front of the Supreme Constitutional Court on June 30.

2012-07-08 00:00:00

Morsi Attempts to Reinstate Parliament

Issuing his first presidential decree, Morsi demands the reinstatement of the dissolved parliament. His decree provokes mass protests against Morsi, while Brotherhood supporters gathered in support of his decision.

2012-07-10 01:11:44

SCC Freezes Morsi’s Decree

The Supreme Constitutional Court freezes Morsi’s decree reinstating the dissolved parliament. The next day, the presidency accepts the ruling out of respect for judicial rulings.

2012-07-19 00:00:00

Morsi Releases 572 Military Prisoners

On the occasion of Ramadan, Morsi releases 572 prisoners detained by the military in the wake of Mubarak’s ouster. 530 of those released had already been convicted, while 42 were awaiting military trials.

2012-07-30 01:11:44

Morsi Pardons 26 Islamists

Morsi pardons 26 Islamist convicts, among them member of al-Jama’a al-Islamiya and the Brotherhood, some of which were facing death sentences, after their conviction in terrorism related cases.

2012-08-02 01:22:17

Hisham Qandil Named Prime Minister

Morsi appoints Hisham Qandil, the outgoing irrigation prime minister in Kamal al-Ganzoury’s cabinet, as prime minister. Qandil forms a cabinet containing many holdovers from the Mubarak-era cabinet.

2012-08-05 01:11:44

Sixteen Soldiers Killed on Egypt-Israel Border

In one of the worst attacks on security personnel in Sinai under Morsi, sixteen Egyptian border guards are killed by unknown assailants. The attack is followed, on August 8, by the beginning of the armed forces’ ‘Operation Eagle,’ while Morsi sacks the North Sinai governor as well as the Mubarak-era head of general intelligence, Murad Mowafy.

2012-08-12 00:00:00

Morsi Appoints Sisi Defense Minister

President Mohamed Morsi orders the retirement of senior military figures, Minister of Defense Hussein Tantawi and Chief of Staff Sami Anan. The president appoints Abdel Fattah al-Sisi, the chief of military intelligence as new defense minister. Morsi also cancels the military-drafted addendum to the Constitutional Declaration, which put many authorities in military hands just before he was announced president in June. Later, Morsi grants Tantawi and Anan state medals, and appoints them as

2012-08-23 00:00:00

Morsi Issues Law Preventing Pretrial Detention of Journalists

Morsi issues a law preventing the pretrial detention of journalists. The decision comes in the wake of the detention of editor in chief of the private daily Ibrahim Afifi on charges of spreading false news and insulting the president.

2012-08-27 00:00:00

Morsi Appoints Aides and Advisers

Morsi appoints four presidential aides and 17 advisors. The four aides include a member of the Salafi Nour Party, the Muslim Brotherhood, a Copt, and a woman. The 17 advisors include 10 Islamist, six of which are Freedom and Justice Party Members, and 3 are Nour Party members.

Egypt's Revolution: 3 Years On

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