150 Years of Kansas Alpha Pi Beta Phi in Context

“[In 1873, when we founded Kansas Alpha Pi Beta Phi] a young woman pursuing a college course found herself the target for many criticisms and queries. She was risking her health for the sake of a little learning, – she was crowding her mind with a mass of information much of it utterly useless, – her interests were being called away from the traditional sphere of women – to marry and bear children, – and what was to be the outcome?”

Gertrude Boughton Blackwelder (1873), one of the seven founders of Kansas Alpha Pi Beta Phi;xNLx;;xNLx;

1860-01-01 20:14:17

KU Pi Phi Founders Face Question: "What Was to Be the Outcome?"

“[In 1873, when we founded Kansas Alpha Pi Beta Phi] a young woman pursuing a college course found herself the target for many criticisms and queries. She was risking her health for the sake of a little learning, – she was crowding her mind with a mass of information much of it utterly useless, – her interests were being called away from the traditional sphere of women – to marry and bear children, – and what was to be the outcome?”

1860-01-03 10:41:33

Tips For Reading the Timeline

See below for some tips.

1860-01-15 18:22:49

About this Timeline of "150 for 150": Author's Note

The Timeline, a historical account of Kansas Alpha Pi Beta Phis using their KU educations in historical context, including some of the challenges faced, is a work-in-progress. Although the compiling was led by me, Nancy Dickinson* (1984), many KU Pi Phis contributed to this project, including Lisa Rinehart Hoffman (1988), Anniversary Chair, and Fran Becque, national Pi Phi historian. Many other Kansas Alpha alums contributed helpful information and feedback, including Anne Bloomfield Fischer (1985), Jean Ferguson Shepherd (1965), Lynette Berg Robe (1963), Jean Burghart Glattke (1964), Bridget Geoghan Wagstaff (1975), and many others. Please contact me with any questions, suggestions, corrections: nancy@dickinsonx.com. All errors are my own. To connect with other KU Pi Phis, please join your LinkedIn Profile to the LinkedIn Group: "Kansas Alpha – Pi Beta Phi” https://www.linkedin.com/groups/12575122/. Please keep in mind that I could fill this Timeline of 150 many times over with the many KU Pi Phis doing remarkable things in the world! I had to cap each pledge class at 3 featured representative Pi Phis, making some tough choices based on historical impact. Some pledge classes were chock full of candidates. I had to flip a coin in many cases. Moreover, my research was necessarily sporadic and undoubtedly missed many Pi Phis because of the lack of an electronic index. I hope the KU Pi Phis or the national Pi Phi organization will consider creating a networking index because I found many Pi Phis I suspect would enjoy knowing each other cross-generationally, with common interests and experiences.

1860-01-16 15:09:07

© 2023, Kansas Alpha Pi Beta Phi Educational Foundation and Nancy Dickinson

1860-02-01 07:41:08

FAQ about this Timeline

Please see below some Frequently Asked Questions about this Timeline.

1861-07-02 03:11:46

Kansas Constitution: Rights of Man and Person

The Kansas constitution is ratified to vest some rights in "Man" and some in "Person". For example, Kansas Constitution § 1. Equal rights. All men are possessed of equal and inalienable natural rights, among which are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." By contrast, the US Constitution is instead framed from 1787-1791 in rights of "Person" and/or "Citizen", intentionally excluding the term "Man" in vesting rights. Some states, in addition to Kansas, do attempt to confer rights only in Man, however. Others, such as that of Colorado, which is ratified only 15 years after Kansas, align with the US Constitution, using only the terms Person and/or Citizen.

1866-09-12 17:31:15

University of Kansas Opens With 55 Students: 26 Women

KU is one of the earliest public institutions in the United States to admit men and women equally. It opens primarily as a preparatory school. It is not until 1869 that collegiate level courses are taught; the first graduation—with four students—is in 1873. The valedictorian of that first collegiate graduating class in 1873 is Flora Richardson Colman (1873).

1870-07-01 17:05:47

Women are 16% of College Students Nationally

Even at coeducational institutions like KU where women and men have equal access to all courses, the coed nature of the schools often does not extend to social clubs. In 1870 a typical co-ed campus offers eight times more male-only clubs than clubs open to women.

1872-01-01 00:00:00

How College Women Are Regarded

Male students and professors alike tend to regard women’s academic capabilities as inferior. This female inferiority is frequently alleged to be innate or genetically determined, such as being based on smaller skull size and other female physiology. A prominent example is when, in 1872, retired Harvard Medical School Professor Edward Hammond Clarke begins speaking and writing on his views that females lack educational capacity. He publishes a book called "Sex in Education", which sells out in the first week. The book argues that girls and young women are not able to withstand the “intellectual demands traditionally placed on boys [and young men]” and that imposing such demands on girls during puberty will lead to “physiological disasters,” such as “nervous collapse and sterility.” Prominent educated women raise objections, ranging from bemused to bewildered to outraged, but his views take root with some people, including other male physicians.

1873-01-01 03:24:17

KU I.C. Sorosis is Formed: The Founders' Mindset

Eight women students decide that they need to found I.C. Sorosis at KU after a group of men found a Beta Theta Pi men's fraternity chapter. This is seven years after the original I.C. Sorosis is founded at Monmouth College in Illinois. (Like KU, Monmouth College, a private college, has been founded as a coeducational institution where both men and women have access to all the courses.) I.C. Sorosis joins with Beta Theta Pi to publish KU's first yearbook for the 1873-74 year, called The Hierophantes.

1873-01-15 20:06:53

Gertrude Boughton Blackwelder (1873)

Social Reform Advocate and Academic. (dec) Chicago, Illinois, and Lawrence, Kansas. One of the eight original Kansas Alphas, after graduation she becomes the first female KU grad to be appointed to the faculty. After later moving to Chicago with her husband for his work, she joins and eventually becomes President (1906-1908) of the Chicago Women’s Club, a social reform organization, from 1906-1908. In 1912, she casts the first woman's vote in Cook County, Illinois. “When I entered the University, in January 1869,” writes Gertrude in the 1908 Graduate Magazine of the University of Kansas, “Such was my delight at the opportunity for higher education, then largely denied to girls, that no thought of our limitations disturbed the serenity of my youthful mind.” Married. Mother of two children.

1873-01-16 11:33:05

Flora Richardson Colman (1873) MA

Social Reform Advocate. Teacher (one year). (dec) Lawrence, Kansas. One of the eight founding Kansas Alphas, Flora is valedictorian of the first college class KU graduates, in 1873. There are four graduates; the other three are men. Coverture-style sex roles mean her professional future lacks the opportunities open to her male counterparts, however. Shortly after graduation she becomes a secondary school teacher, one of the few professions of the time that employed women. A year later, she marries. She stops working then but does continue to focus on intellectual activities for many years. Just after she is married, she earns her MA from KU and engages in a small amount of post-graduate study afterwards. She enrolls in the Chautauqua Literary and Scientific Circle, one of the nation’s first book clubs, and earns another diploma after four years of home study. Flora also works on social reform. In her obituary, daughter Nellie Colman Bigsby said: “There has been no movement for the benefit of her community or for women and children that did not receive her ardent support. Women’s suffrage, the women’s rest room, the various plans to provide high school privileges for rural pupils and the farm bureau for rural women, each in their turn were things she was untiring in her efforts to secure.” Married. Mother of seven children.

1873-01-17 15:19:11

Hannah Oliver (1873)

Academic (dec) in Lawrence, Kansas. One of the eight founding Kansas Alphas, Hannah uses her 1874 degree from KU in Latine to become a professor at KU in Classics. She is a faculty member from 1890 until 1931 when she retires at the rank of Associate Professor.

1873-01-19 14:06:27

Alice Morgan Goss (1873) MD(H)

Homeopathic Physician (dec) San Francisco, California. One of the early members of Kansas Alpha Pi Beta Phi. Like her sister, Carrie Goss Haskell (1873) she later graduates from Hahnemann Homeopathic College of Chicago. In San Francisco, she becomes a specialist in diseases of women and children. Single. No children.

1873-01-20 00:42:59

Carrie Goss Haskell (1873) MD(H)

Homeopathic Physician (dec) Sacramento, California. One of the early members of Kansas Alpha Pi Beta Phi. She practices in Sacramento, California. She first studies at St. Louis Medical College for two years, and later graduates from Hahnemann Homeopathic College of Chicago. Her sister Alice Morgan Goss (1873) is also a homeopathic physician, in San Francisco, California. Married.

1874-07-15 12:04:58

Coverture Concepts Impair Married Women

A distinctive feature of the English legal system that the US has inherited from its founding is the rights of single women. These are the same as those of single men. Over many centuries, even millennia, English law retains these rights for single women while they are blocked in Continental Europe, primarily under the Salic Law. For married women, however, their rights derived from England can be as impaired as those of all women on most of Continental Europe. Judicially imposed coverture common laws, which begin being imposed in much of England after the 1066 Norman Conquest from France, have in turn been brought to the (later) US during colonial years. In the US during colonial years and later, there is no coverture law adopted by a legislature, the US Constitution vests rights in "Person" and "Citizen", and there are often civil disobedience protests of coverture, however, judges continue to impose it in many locations: Prior to marriage a woman can freely execute a will, enter into contracts, sue or be sued in her own name, and sell or give away her real estate or personal property as she wishes. "Once she [marries], however, her legal existence as an individual [is] suspended under “marital unity,” a legal fiction in which the husband and wife [are] considered a single entity: the husband. The husband [exercises] almost exclusive power and responsibility and rarely [has] to consult his wife to make decisions about property matters. Coverture [renders] a woman unable to enter a contract, [to obtain a business license,] to sue or be sued on her own behalf or to execute a will without her husband’s consent and, unless some prior specific provision separating a woman’s property from her husband’s had been made, [strips] a woman of control over real and personal property.” Any earnings of hers are the husband's property right. After 1859, Kansas women have a partial block on coverture because Kansas constitutionalizes a Married Women’s Property Act. Kansas Constitution, Article 15, Section 6. “Rights of women. The legislature shall provide for the protection of the rights of women, in acquiring and possessing property, real, personal and mixed, separate and apart from the husband; and shall also provide for their equal rights in the possession of their children.” Coverture is disassembled in the United States through constitutions and legislation at the state level beginning in Mississippi in 1839 and continuing into the 1880s.

1874-07-15 15:39:08

Maternal and Paternal Roles and the Law

[To be completed] Paternity of infants is determined, or not determined, based on legal fictions because of inadequate evidence to a legal certainty. These legal fictions include: (a) when a child is born to a married women, her husband is legally the father and (b) when a child is born to an unmarried women, the child is legally considered to have no father. On divorce, some women have difficulty obtaining any child custody until the "Tender Years Doctrine" is widely promulgated. It creates a presumption of sole maternal custody, first for age 0-4, and later for age 0-18. The Tender Years Doctrine also reinforces women holding primary and even sole personal and even financial responsibility for children, however.

1874-07-16 12:04:58

A "Hobson's Choice" for College Women

Women face a problematic choice between accepting a patriarchal marriage, including its costs to them and for children, or forgoing marriage and children entirely. This is a "Hobson's Choice", i.e. a "something or nothing" "choice" where the real alternative to both "choices" is kept hidden. For highly educated women whose earnings are higher, this often makes staying single more appealing. In some cases women are able to negotiate marriages that are more equal, however. Overall, their marriage rates are significantly lower. The women who do marry face major obstacles to earning income. Nine of the twelve Monmouth founding Pi Phis married, and three did not.

1874-07-17 03:52:12

The Stone/Blackwell Marriage Negotiation Model

In attempting to negotiate an alternative to the Hobson's Choice and prevent judicial imposition of coverture, some couples follow the example of Henry Blackwell and Lucy Stone, married in 1855. Stone first graduates from Oberlin College in 1847 (in the 1830s Oberlin had become the first college in the US to admit women and men equally). When Blackwell begins courting her in 1853, Stone says she did not wish to marry because she does not want to surrender control over her life to the subsumed legal position occupied by a married woman. Blackwell maintains that despite the law, couples could create a marriage of equal partnership, governed by their mutual agreement. In an 18-month correspondence, Stone and Blackwell discuss the nature of marriage, actual and ideal, as well as their own natures and suitability for marriage. Stone in November 1854 agrees to marry Blackwell. Neither Stone nor Blackwell change their names on marriage. Their daughter is named Alice Stone Blackwell. Stone and Blackwell develop a private agreement aimed at a more equal partnership, preserving and protecting Stone's financial independence and personal liberty. In monetary matters, they agree that the marriage will be like a negotiated business partnership, with the partners being "joint proprietors of everything except the results of previous labors." Neither will have claim to lands belonging to the other, nor any obligation for the other's costs of holding them. While married and living together they will share earnings, but if they should separate, each will relinquish claim to the other's subsequent earnings. Each will have the right to will his/her property to whomever they pleased unless they had children. Blackwell agrees that Stone will choose "when, where and how often" she would "become a mother." In addition to this private agreement, Blackwell draws up a protest of laws, rules, and customs that confer superior rights on husbands and, as part of the wedding ceremony, pledges never to avail himself of those laws. “While some commentators viewed it as a protest against marriage itself, others agreed that no woman should resign her legal existence without such formal protest against the despotism that forced her to forgo marriage and motherhood or submit to the degradation in which law placed a married woman.” Blackwell’s protest document then spreads across the country. It inspires other couples to make similar protests part of their wedding ceremonies.

1874-07-17 14:27:28

Married Women and Business/Professional Licenses

In 1872, the Supreme Court rules, in a case based in Illinois, that states can prohibit a married woman receiving a law license. It makes this ruling on the basis that a married woman is not a "person" in an 1872 Illinois law that states, "No person shall be precluded or debarred from any occupation, profession, or employment (except military) on account of sex." After the Supreme Court's ruling, in 1874, Illinois passes a law specifically allowing married women to obtain licenses. Even after this clarification by Illinois, other states continue to block married women obtaining professional and business licenses, based upon the Supreme Court ruling. Also, the Illinois married woman plaintiff, Myra Bradwell, is discouraged by the Supreme Court ruling in her case and does not herself obtain a license from Illinois until much later.

1874-07-18 17:59:34

Women's Club Movement

Gertrude Boughton Blackwelder (1873) and Flora Richardson Colman (1873), two of the original seven Kansas Alphas and who marry, become part of the Women's Club Movement. Gertrude becomes President of the Chicago Women's Club. The Women's Club Movement begins because, with the legal constraints and other heavy pressures on married women in the 1870s, they find few outlets for their abilities, ambition, curiosity, and frustration with unsolved problems. Work at church and patriotic fundraising for Civil War soldiers are the only outlets that permit married women to contribute to shaping the public world, absent a negotiated marriage outside these bounds. Career opportunities are few. Skill-building, beyond needlework, is deemed unnecessary. Political activism, civic reform, and community involvement are regarded as outside the realm of the sentimentalized role of mothers and wives who should focus entirely on serving their husbands and children. In the 1860s, a few brave women in big cities challenge these constraints and soon persuade the general population of middle-class US women to form voluntary organizations in their neighborhoods to step outside these constraints, undertake serious study of intellectual topics and current events, and organize for social reforms at the local, state, and national levels. In the years between the 1870s and 1920s, women’s clubs become the major vehicle by which married women can exercise their developing talents to shape the world beyond their homes.

1875-01-15 02:22:38

Florence Finch Kelly (1875)

Journalist and Novelist. (dec) Massachusetts, New York and other locations. Longtime contributor to the Boston Globe and New York Times. Her autobiography is called Flowing Stream: The Story of Fifty-six Years in American Newspaper Life (1939). She also authors a number of novels. Married. Mother of two children.

1875-05-15 00:00:00

Jennie Nicol (1867 Monmouth) Recieves Her MD

One of the founding Monmouth Pi Phis, Jennie in about 1875 graduates from the Women's Medical College of Pennsylvania, becoming one of a few hundred female physicians in the US. In its early days, the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania is one of the few medical colleges that admits women. It faces serious opposition from the male medical establishment. Women are said to be too feeble-minded to succeed in the demanding arena of academic medicine and too delicate to endure the physical requirements of clinical practice. One of the most serious barriers to the success of the college is the lack of clinical experience available to its students and interns because area hospitals do not allow women to attend lectures or to treat patients. Single. No children.

1882-01-15 11:23:31

Josephine Miles-Woodward (1882)

Journalist. (dec). Josephine becomes a war correspondent for the Cincinnati Commercial Gazette during the Spanish-American War and is the first woman sent to the island in that capacity. She obtains an interview with General Weyler.

1883-01-15 11:06:23

Jennette H. Bolles (1883) DO

Osteopathic physician. (dec) Denver, Colorado. Jennette becomes the first woman to study and develop a career as an osteopathic physician. She becomes interested in osteopathy after an osteopathic physician successfully removes a bullet from her father and restores him to health after he is left for dead during border skirmishes in the 1850s. She practices in Denver and opens an osteopathic school there with her husband. She serves on the Colorado Board of Medical Examiners. When the Governor offers her appointment to the State Medical Board, she turns it down because they do not recognize osteopathy. She and her husband raise two children.

1886-01-15 00:00:00

Gertrude Crotty-Davenport (1886)

Scientist. (Partially Discredited) (dec) Cold Spring Harbor, New York. After KU graduation, Gertrude pursues graduate studies at Radcliffe in biology. She marries one of her instructors. Gertrude then assists her husband who becomes head of the biological station at the Carnegie Institute at Cold Spring Harbor, New York. She co-authors a number of publications, including textbooks, such as Introduction to Zoology. Together with her husband, she also becomes involved in the Eugenics Movement, the discredited area of evolutionary biology. Married. Raises three children.

1893-01-15 04:23:00

Josephine Thorndike Berry (1893)

Real Estate Developer and Academic/Educator. (dec) Kansas City, Missouri, after other locations. After spending many years teaching home economics at the collegiate level, Josephine becomes the builder and operator of Thorndike Hall, an apartment hotel for women in Kansas City, Missouri, to remedy a lack of appropriate housing for single employed women.

1893-01-16 10:07:47

Alice Rohe (1893)

Alice Rohe (1893) (dec). New York, Colorado (primarily Denver), and Italy (primarily Rome). Alice is a founding editor of the KU student newspaper. Along her long career, she becomes a WWI correspondent in Italy, heading the UPI bureau there (the first woman to head an overseas major news bureau), and is arrested by Italy twice for spying. Single. No children.

1894-01-15 14:21:59

Adele Humphrey (ca. 1894)

Teacher, Administrator, and Journalist. (dec) Los Angeles and other locations. [To be completed]

1897-01-15 15:33:12

Gertrude Hill Springer (1897)

Social Welfare Worker & Journalist (dec). New York, Italy, Cape Cod, Massachusetts. In WWI, she serves as director of civilian relief in Italy for the Red Cross. In 1951, the American Public Welfare Association honors her with an award for her "unique achievements as a penetrating reporter of the American social scene and her special contribution in the field of public welfare." At her death in 1953, "thousands of social workers [remember finding] hope and encouragement in her writing during the Depression." Married.

1900-07-01 14:20:53

Women are 33% of College Students Nationally

Less than 2% of people age 18-24 are enrolled in college. Women's enrollment in college education begins to increase, however.

1901-11-09 13:58:57

KU Pi Phis' First Home: 1200 Tennessee St

"The Pi Beta Phi chapter house has been completed and the girls are now at home to their friends." (Lawrence Journal-World: 1901) Twelve Pi Phis move to the house. The Sutliff sisters, KU Pi Phi Alums, build the house specifically to be a chapter house. They serve as house mothers. After the Pi Phis outgrow this house in 1907 and move to 1245 Oread, 1200 Tennessee serves as the "student union" for KU, open only to men. There is then a library, a barber chair, pool table, cigar room, etc.

1905-07-15 10:58:11

20% of Women Earn Income; 5% of Married Women

1907-01-15 00:23:11

Iris Calderhead Pratt (1907) MA

Political activist. Teacher (briefly). (dec) Washington, DC; Mount Laurel, New Jersey; McKittrick Canyon, Texas. Iris becomes a leader in the national campaign to prohibit discrimination against women in the right to vote and to prohibit other discrimination on the basis of sex under the law. After KU graduation in 1911, she does graduate work at Bryn Mawr and the Univ. of Chicago and briefly teaches English. During this time, Kansas constitutionalizes a prohibition of voting discrimination in 1912. By 1915, she begins her advocacy, traveling all over the country to work on a constitutional amendment (later the 19th Amendment) to end sex discrimination in voting. She becomes Vice President for Demonstrations for the National Women's Party and is arrested several times in 1917, including for preparing to unfurl a banner challenging President Wilson and Democratic Party in their opposition to women voting and later for leading the Silent Sentinel picketing of the White House. After the 19th Amendment is ratified, she focuses on the Equal Rights Amendment to prohibit federal and state government discrimination on the basis of sex. Later, she asserts the need for women’s equality in the World Court then being created by the League of Nations. Married twice (widowed). No children.

1907-08-01 00:11:52

Pi Phis Move to 1245 Oread

It becomes the first women's fraternity house located on campus. The house costs $7500 to build. One active at the time later recalls: “It is surprising to remember, though, how much opposition and even ridicule we encountered. Older alumnae scoffed at the idea of our being able to finance and manage a chapter house of our own. But the courage and enthusiasm of the active chapter never faltered. They did everything in their fervor to help. They gave what they could outright, they worked all summer getting pledges and doing actual labor at home in turn for cash, they did without clothes and other things, they gave entertainments, all for the cause.”

1914-07-28 18:06:17

World War I: 1914-1918

At least two KU Pi Phis are active during WWI in war-related efforts, both in Italy. 1. Alice Rohe (1893) Journalist (dec) becomes a WWI correspondent in Italy, where she is arrested twice for spying. 2. Gertrude Hill Springer (1897) Social Welfare Worker and Journalist (dec) serves as director of civilian relief in Italy for the Red Cross. [Author's Note: I don't know if they knew each other.]

1917-06-29 15:35:05

Pi Phis Move to 1246 Mississippi

Also known as the "Pea Green Lodge", the house costs about $20,000 to build.

1920-07-15 00:00:00

Women are 47% of College Students Nationally

This marks an increase from women being 33% of college students in 1900. Women students are often pursuing core liberal arts and professional programs.

1920-07-15 23:29:39

College Women Continue to Forego Marriage More Than Other Women

Even as marriage rates increase in the general population, many college women pursue the "single and earning" aspect of the Hobson's Choice. In 1932, when Congress proposes legislation to remove married women from the Federal civil service. The National Woman’s Party crafts a resolution encouraging women to consider divorce to keep their jobs. Iris Calderhead Pratt (1907) presents that resolution to President Herbert Hoover, which also asks for the passage of the Equal Rights Amendment.

1920-08-18 23:35:51

19th Amendment Ratified: Discrimination in Voting by Sex Prohibited

At least two Kansas Alpha Pi Phis play prominent roles in the long campaign for the 19th Amendment. 1. Iris Calderhead Pratt (1907): A leader of the National Women's Party. After Kansas constitutionalizes a prohibition of voting discrimination in 1912, on behalf of the NWP she travels all over the country to give speeches. In 1917 she becomes NWP Vice President for Demonstrations. She is arrested twice in this role: (a) For unfurling a banner challenging President Wilson and the Democratic Party in their opposition to women voting and (b) For picketing the White House as one of the Silent Sentinels. 2. Gertrude Boughton Blackwelder (1873): On July 26, 1913, she casts the first women's vote in Cook County, IL soon after Illinois prohibited such discrimination by state law, the "Women’s Suffrage Law". A photo of Gertrude casting that vote appears in numerous papers. Flora Richardson Colman (1873) is also active in campaigning against voting discrimination. [Author's note: I don't know if Iris and Gertrude knew each other.]

1921-01-15 21:19:48

Leona Baumgartner (1921) MD, PhD

Public Health Physician Official and Academic Physician. (dec) Cambridge, Massachusetts, New York, NY, and Washington, DC. Leona first receives the Pi Beta Phi Graduate Fellowship Award for 1933-1934 and obtains an MA in Immunology from KU. She then obtains her MD and PhD from Yale. She is then hired as a Professor at Harvard Medical School. Later she becomes Public Health Commissioner for New York City. In 1956, she publicly inoculates Elvis Presley (age 21) in the successful effort to promote polio vaccination. In 1962, she heads a department in the US Agency for International Development. Known her tact and diplomatic skills, she reportedly convinces President Johnson to reverse his policy to supporting US international funding for birth control. Married twice (widowed). Raised two children.

1923-12-13 09:33:38

Equal Rights Amendment Proposed in Congress

The Amendment is drafted by Alice Paul, head of the National Women's Party. Iris Calderhead Pratt (1907) is still an officer and organizer in the NWP. The ERA is first introduced in Congress on December 13 by Representative Daniel Anthony (R-KS), who is sex equality advocate Susan B. Anthony’s nephew. In 1932, Iris presents to President Herbert Hoover a petition advocating the ERA. Herbert Hoover's wife, Lou Henry Hoover, is a longtime supporter of the ERA. She is the first woman to study geology in the US, receiving a degree from Stanford. The petition Iris presents also addresses legislation Congress proposes to remove married women from the Federal civil service during the Depression. In response to that legislation, the National Woman’s Party has crafted a resolution encouraging women to consider divorce to keep their jobs. Iris presents that resolution to President Herbert Hoover as well. President Hoover opposes the Congressional legislation.

1929-10-01 13:07:36

Great Depression: Some College Women Suspend Their Educations

During the Great Depression, some KU Pi Phis have to suspend or stop their educations to earn money. At least two Kansas Alpha Pi Phis are active during the Great Depression: [Springer, Calderhead, to be completed] Earning money is easier for single women as there is widespread pressure to limit married couples to one paid job. A wife thus often loses her job if her husband is employed. Among the few women in the labor force, layoffs are less common in the white-collar jobs and women are often found in light manufacturing work.

1930-07-15 21:57:36

50% of Single Women Earn Income; 12% of Married Women

[To be completed]

1934-01-15 02:03:05

Carolyn Bailey Berneking (1934)

Teacher and Librarian. (dec) Lawrence, Kansas, and earlier New Jersey and Alabama. Carolyn has a long career as a librarian, after an initial few years teaching school in Alabama. Married. Raises three children.

1939-01-15 11:51:27

Virginia Lee Carson Garver (1939)

Lay and Professional Nurse. (dec) Wichita, Kansas [To be completed]

1939-01-15 18:45:09

Joan Darby Edwards (1939)

Philanthropist. (dec) Mission Hills, Kansas. In addition to philanthropy for KU, Joan spends many decades volunteering for KU, including being a member of three administrative search committees, being a member of Coach Glen Mason's Football Advisory Board, representing the KU Alumni Association to the Athletic Corporation Board, being a Chancellors Club and Williams Educational Fund member and serving as vice chairman of the Campaign Kansas Intercollegiate Athletics Committee. In 1991 she receives the Fred Ellsworth Medallion for individuals “who have provided unique and significant service to the University.” The KU Edwards Campus in Overland Park is named in honor of Joan Darby Edwards and her husband, Roy A. Edwards, Jr. Susan Edwards Miller (1970), Joan's daughter, serves on the KU Edwards Campus Board of Advisors. Susan also engages in significant philanthropy for KU, including the Doug and Susan Miller Family Scholarship Fund, which benefits students majoring in education or business at the Edwards Campus. Susan says at the time of this gift: “Because the campus was named for my parents, it is an overwhelming honor to be able to establish this scholarship here. At the time we decided to start this scholarship, my mother was still living, and it was great to be able to tell her we were doing this.” Joan's mother is Edith Cubbison Darby (1914). Joan's other daughter and her daughter-in-law are also KU Phi Phis. Barbara Edwards (1967) and Terry Beach Edwards (1964).

1944-06-22 17:05:59

"GI Bill" Alters College For Women

The GI Bill affects the relative proportion of women on campus because the types of military support work and civilian war-related work that many women perform during WWII does not qualify them for the payments for education that male veterans of combat-eligible service receive. As its nickname indicates, the law centers education benefits on the "infantryman", a position for which women involved in the war effort are not eligible. At KU, between 1945-1959, enrollment increases from 6300 to over 11,700 students. In 1947, veterans number 60% of those KU students. The veterans plus additional male students mean the proportion of women students nationwide reduces to 33% by the mid-1950s from the 47% women represented in 1920. The dramatic increase in male enrollments ends up reducing the amount of women who can pursue professional fields. The percentage of women earning PhDs also begins a decline that continues throughout the 1950s.

1945-01-15 01:42:37

Mary Longenecker Mann (1945)

Government. International Locations and later Kansas City. As a member of the U.S. State Department, Mary is stationed at U.S. Embassies in Belgrade, Yugoslavia and Stockholm, Sweden. Later, she works as a freelance and official court reporter in Kansas City, Missouri, and Kansas City, Kansas. Married. No children.

1945-01-15 18:45:31

Eugenia Hepworth Berger (1945) PhD

Academic in Childhood Education, Author, and Teacher in Littleton, Colorado. (dec) From 1967 Professor and later Chair of the Department of Education at Metropolitan State College in Denver until retirement in 1997. In 1981 Eugenia authors the textbook, "Parents as Partners in Education", which is continuously in print through its release in its 10th edition in 2019. Prior to becoming a college professor in 1967, she is a public school teacher and director of a parent education program. Married. Mother of three children.

150 Years of Kansas Alpha Pi Beta Phi in Context

Copy this timeline Login to copy this timeline 3d Game mode

Contact us

We'd love to hear from you. Please send questions or feedback to the below email addresses.

Before contacting us, you may wish to visit our FAQs page which has lots of useful info on Tiki-Toki.

We can be contacted by email at: hello@tiki-toki.com.

You can also follow us on twitter at twitter.com/tiki_toki.

If you are having any problems with Tiki-Toki, please contact us as at: help@tiki-toki.com


Edit this timeline

Enter your name and the secret word given to you by the timeline's owner.

3-40 true Name must be at least three characters
3-40 true You need a secret word to edit this timeline

Checking details

Please check details and try again