Multimedia History:1940-1990

1933-07-01 14:59:31

The Educational Talking Picture

The "Talking Picture" makes its way into classrooms

1939-01-01 08:31:43

Educational Films Begin

Organized in 1939, Teaching Film Custodians (TFC) maintains a program to make available to schools films which contribute to education and which cannot be obtained from other sources. The program is carried on without profit to the producing companies or to any educational agency responsible for implementing this service.

1940-01-01 00:00:00

Clark L. Hull

Mathematico-Deductive Theory of Rote Learning published Hull's learning theories for the first time. Clark Hull died in 1952 and with a legacy to psychology that is thought to be his approach to the study of behaviour.

1940-04-01 14:59:31

Talking Film Instruction in Foreign Language

Animated films, according to Juer-Marbach, possess distinct advantages for instruction in that they provide pleasure, hold the attention, save "considerable mental effort" and are easy to produce. “My object is to make clear, by means of animated pictures, everything that can be represented by language and everything that can be made clear by means of movement, since the history of language is movement in time.”

1947-02-08 01:26:32

Richard Mayer

Richard Mayer was born in 1947. Mayer's is an American Educational Psychologist who was a pioneer on the use of technology and multimedia learning in real-world educational settings. He was born in Chicago and grew up in Cincinnati. He is a product of public education. He loved math and science.

1948-03-01 17:51:56

Mr. Canada

"Paivio was awarded the title of "Mr. Canada." Allan Paivio was an active body builder and opened one of the first gym and health studies in Montreal.

1948-05-01 08:31:43

Phonographs and SoundScribers

...combining oral classroom instruction and concise streamlined grammar with independent oral drill outside of by use of phonograph recordings, SoundScribers, and wire recorder course is designed particularly to permit engineers to acquire sufficient to speak and understand simple Spanish in one semester, while simultaneously supplying a reliable basis for continued acquisition of the language, either home or abroad.

1950-01-01 00:00:00

Alan Turing

British computer scientist, mathematician and logician and father of computer science and artificial intelligence. He was also a hero during the Second World War for cracking the Enegma messages. The Turing test, developed by Alan Turing in 1950, is a test of a machine's ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human.

1951-09-22 08:31:43

The Impact of Television on School Children

How much of children's interest in television is due to the this is a relatively new toy? Will their interest diminish after television has been available long enough so that its novelty has worn off? When a family acquires a TV set, parents find themselves confronted with certain difficulties in getting the children to come to meals, go to bed on time, do their homework, etc. Of course, these are not new, but television seems to have intensified them in some homes.

1959-09-01 08:31:43

Oral Testing by Remote Control

How many language teachers have started out enthusiastically with new tape recording equipment to capture oral test responses of students, only to be completely disillusioned when confronted with the task of grading: threading, listening to the same questions over and over while waiting for the student responses, rewinding, and rethreading reel after reel?

1959-09-01 08:31:43

Is Television Harmful to the Clasroom?

Few efforts to effect changes in our schools have encountered more vigorous opposition or enjoyed more ardent support than those relating to the use of modern technology in the classroom.

1960-02-01 08:31:43

The Television Teacher...?

The distance between a television teacher and his students is more than that between a pane of glass and a classroom. The television teacher is separated from his students.

1960-12-10 08:31:43

Suggestions for Using a Tape Recorder in the Classroom

1962-09-01 04:03:21

Two Factor Theory of Emotion (Schachter and Singer)

"Cognitive factors appear to be indispensable elements in any formulation of emotion." Schachter, S., & Singer, J. (1962). Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state. Psychological Review, 69(5), 379-399. doi:10.1037/h0046234 ***Emotion is determined by a physiological response to a stimulus and an evaluation of that response. For example, imagine you are taking your morning run and a mountain lion jumps in front of you. Your heart races. You evaluate that the reason your heart is racing is because you are frightened.

1964-05-01 14:59:31


"the medium is the message" , “Global Village”. sounds familiar but do you know these two hot expression were coined by the same man? Please meet Mcluhan. Herbert Marshall McLuhan CC was a Canadian professor, philosopher, and public intellectual. His work is one of the cornerstones of the study of media theory.

1965-02-01 14:59:31

Tape Recorders in the Classroom? NO!

Their unregulated use constitutes a threat to the well-being of the academic community and is of concern to university administrators, faculty members, and educational associations.

1965-05-01 08:31:43

Teleconferencing with Guest Speakers

Telelearning, pioneered by Michael Beilis, a linguist formerly of the University of Omaha and now Educational Director of A.T. & T., are a recent development. Their use for seminars, conferences, and training sessions in business, industry, and the professions is expanding. At the college level, Telelearning has made it possible to share professors and to being exceptional possibilities (and ordinarily expensive) visiting speakers to schools with limited means.

1966-01-01 08:31:43

The Visual Cliff Experiments (Eleanor Gibson)

Eleanor Gibson- Gibsonian Ecological Theory of Development Environment and context are essential in learning. Perception is crucial because it allows humans to adapt to their environments.

1966-01-01 14:49:39

Affordance Theory (J. J. Gibson)

"What a thing is and what it means are not separate, the former being physical and the latter being mental as we are accustomed to believe." Famous Work: Gibson, J.J. (1966). The senses considered as perceptual systems. Oxford: Houghton Mifflin. ***Please view video at minute 2:35. There is no distinction between sensation and perception.

1966-06-21 08:31:43

Learning is Fun with the Dictaphone

The electronic classroom, by Dictaphone, does not eliminate good teaching - nothing ever will. It enhances good teaching, keeping it alive with an increasing vitality as the days go by and the uses expand. Brown, B. E. (1966). "Learning is fun" with the dictaphone electronic classroom--A discussion. The Journal of Negro Education, 35(3), 246-251. doi:10.2307/2293944

1966-08-01 06:17:51

JJ Gibson

"how do we see the world as we do?" This is the question that drived American psychologist and one of the most important contributors to the field of visual perception, JJ Gibson to conduct his lifelong research. He coined the concept of Affordances, which has been extremely influential in the field of design and ergonomics. JJ Gibson and his wife Eleanor J Gibson, both won the APA Award for Distinguished Xcientific Contributions to Psychology in the 1060s. His major contributions throughout his career were published in three of his major works: The Perception of the Visual World (1950), The Sense Considered as Perceptual Systems (1966), and The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception (1979).

1967-10-01 06:17:51

Videotapes in Teacher Education

There is much discussion these days about the role the new technology will play in the organization of our colleges and universities of the future. At issue is the question of how the new technology—television, programmed instruction, film, tapes, and other audio-visual materials—will be employed in teaching and learning, and whether we can use these devices to educate large numbers of students, without automating the educational process.

1969-10-01 08:31:43

Computers and Individualized Instruction

Individualized education is essentially the adaptation of instructional practices to individual requirements.

1970-09-01 00:00:00

Dolf Zillmann

Inspired by the cognitive shift in psychology during the 1960s and 1970s, communication research increasingly focused on the psychological processes during media reception. Dolf Zillmann and other contributors began to professionalize research on "media and emotions".

1971-03-01 09:06:30

Visual Aids

Simple visual aids are one tool available to teachers to add reality, clarity, and variety to the drill which is necessary for students at the earlier stages of language learning.

1971-07-01 00:00:00

Excitation Transfer Theory (Zillmann)

Most people probably do not consider arousal from media exposure to be pronounced enough to warrant any attention, and hence they do not expect it to affect their behavior. Dismissing such arousals as trivial, the individual will tend to attribute any accumulating residues not to the preceding communication events [which are, in this instance, mediated messages] but to the new stimulus situations in which he finds himself. Moreover, by virtue of their very "unreal" and symbolic (possibly-fantasy encouraging) content, communication messages are generally not related to the person's real and immediate problems and concerns. This should further encourage misattribution of accruing arousal and hence make the person all the more vulnerable to transfer effects in his postcommunication behavior. -Dolf Zillman

1972-04-01 08:31:43

Videotape Self-Assessing

The video tape self-assessment technique can be used in any classroom that has access to a video tape recorder and play back unit. Either a teacher or a counselor can use the video tape equipment to help children become increasingly aware of and responsible for their behavior. Certainly the goals of a school should include helping children to become increasingly aware of and responsible for their behavior.

1973-07-01 08:31:43

Conference Telephone Calls

One efficient means of introducing the views of practitioners into the classroom is the use of conference telephone calls.

1974-01-01 08:31:43

Television Gaining Acceptance as a Classroom Tool

Television is a tool, just as pencils, paints, and yardsticks are tools; the appropriateness of television to the open classroom depends entirely on how it is used.

1975-09-22 08:31:43

The Videotape Recorder in the Classroom

Growing numbers of FL educators have come to realize that language learning involves more than the mere reproduction of sounds.

1975-09-22 08:31:43

The Call to Research "Multimedia"

The effects of the multimedia approach in teaching introductory anthropology have not been fully measured. Research models are only now being developed.

1977-03-30 08:31:43

Interactive Computer Graphics

Interactive computer graphics is being used "live" as a teaching aid in statistics classes at the University of Waterloo.

1977-05-02 14:59:31

Shortwave Radio as an Instructional Tool

…the shortwave radio can bring vividness into the classroom, yet remains a challenging, sometimes obstinate, vehicle for teaching French.

1978-01-01 10:38:31

Royal Society of Canada

Dr. Paivio became a member of Royal Society of Canada. The RSC is from all branches of learning that make a contributions in Canada in the arts, humanities, or sciences. Locate Dr. Paivio's name and his affiliation in the members list located in more information.

1978-10-03 01:26:32

Imagery and Verbal Processes

Paivio published the book, Imagery and Verbal Processes, which was over 600 pages. Preview of book located in more information.

1981-01-01 06:17:51

Shaw & Turvey

In 1981, Shaw and Turvey published a paper as a systematic explication of one of Gibson’s (1979) basic claims, namely, that there are ecological laws relating organisms tc the a.ffordances of the environment.

1981-07-01 12:00:00

Fodor & Pylyshyn

They examines JJ. Gibson's (1979) thesis that the postulation of mental processing is unnecessary to account for one's perceptual relationship with the world. This view is compared to the information processing view and is considered not to be an adequate replacement.

1983-01-01 08:31:43

Computer-Based Education: Fact or Fad?

Education has historically been an endeavor conducted by human beings. During the last 40 years, movie projectors, slide projectors, overhead transparency projectors, and teaching machines have become tools teachers use to enhance their instruction in the classroom. Is it a reasonable assumption that the computer will be added to that list?

1984-07-01 08:31:43

Optical-Disc Technology in the Classroom

According to forecasters, other directions for the industry are optical-disc applications in education and entertainment. Edlehart (1981) notes, "The supporters of the videodisc feel that entertainment and education hold the key to the technology's success. Computer engineers insist that the disc's abilities will be put to best use in computer applications, where discs would solve a genuine problem.”

1986-02-01 14:49:39

Dual Coding Theory (Paivio)

"The most obvious distinction (in the physical-mental comparison) is that some physical representations are picture-like and others are language-like."

1986-05-01 14:59:31


Cuban pulished a book named Teachers and machines: The classroom use of technology since 1920.

1987-09-21 08:31:43

Hypermedia Begins

HyperCard, the hypermedia software developed by Macintosh and released in the fall of 1987, requires only a dual disk drive Macintosh, a computer readily-and relatively inexpensively-available to many students and faculty on American campuses.

1988-04-01 14:49:39

Cognitive Load Theory (Sweller)

"Both experimental evidence and theoretical analysis suggest that conventional problem solving through means-ends analysis may impose a heavy cognitive load." Sweller. J. (1988). Cognitive load during problem solving: Effects on learning. Cognitive Science, 12, 257-285.

1989-03-01 08:31:43

HyperCards and Interactive Videos

Is technology being designed for the replacement (or minimization, at least) of human involvement, or is it being created to allow us to be even more human, to extend our most creative and intellectual powers so as to make this a better (and more humane) world? Or the corollary: Does this software grow out of a basic human need, or is it driven by a particular technology?

1989-03-01 08:31:43

Interactive Television

Every classroom and every office is wired for cable TV.

1989-10-31 08:31:43

Virtual Classroom

The Virtual Classroom is a system for learning and communicating via connected computers.

1989-11-05 08:31:43

Classrooms of the Future...?

Depending on the choices we make, classrooms of the future might be like one of the following two scenarios:

1990-01-01 08:31:43

Multimedia Learning Theory- The Beginning (Mayer and Gallini)

"(Our study) points to the potential of visually based instruction as the medium for promoting students' understanding of scientific material" (p.725). Mayer, R., & Gallini, J. (1990). When is an illustration worth ten thousand words? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82(4), 715-726.

Multimedia History:1940-1990

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