ENGL3611 Book Production

A timeline for use in ENGL3611 Book Production [in process]

This timeline attempts a large-scale overview of significant points in the development of global written cultures. Embedded within this timeline are links to several more focused timelines, three authored by students of ENGL3611 (Winter 2022):;xNLx;;xNLx;>> [Expansion of the printing press over time and geographical space: Germany through Europe](https://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/1793612/Expansion-of-the-printing-press-over-time-and-geographical-space-Germany-through-Europe/) by Willow Matheson, Catherine Taylor, and Hailey Thibodeau;xNLx;>> [Printing in America](https://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/1813477/Printing-in-America/#vars!date=1638-01-01_04:50:58!) by Blake Allen, Mary Connors, Theresa Daigle, and Emma Higdon;xNLx;>> [Women and literacy in the Renaissance Era](https://www.tiki-toki.com/timeline/entry/1819356/Women-and-literacy-in-the-Renaissance-Era/) by Keila Gallardo Cubas, Meagan Gautreau, Alyssa Marie Goguen, and Sarah Marie King;xNLx;;xNLx;The image to the left is a detail from the cover of a remarkable book, [A Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Dictionary: Peskotomuhkati Wolastoqewi Latuwewakon](https://umaine.edu/umpress/featured-books__trashed/a-passamaquoddy-maliseet-dictionary/), posted here as a reminder that books are always political, they are always important, and they are always grounded in this our shared world.;xNLx;;xNLx;ATTRIBUTIONS & RESOURCES;xNLx;;xNLx;[Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Language Portal](https://pmportal.org/browse-dictionary);xNLx;;xNLx;Image (left): Cover, [A Passamaquoddy-Maliseet Dictionary: Peskotomuhkati Wolastoqewi Latuwewakon](https://umaine.edu/umpress/featured-books__trashed/a-passamaquoddy-maliseet-dictionary/). David A. Francis and Robert M. Leavitt; UofMaine/Goose Lane, 2008.;xNLx;;xNLx;Background images: Writing: Sumerian Cuneiform Tablet, April 2009, © Gerhard Huber, Creative Commons ([Global Geography](https://global-geography.org/af/Geography/Asia/Syria/Pictures/Other_Side/415_Ugarit_Schrifttafeln)).;xNLx;;xNLx;Codex: Mayan MS known as the "Dresden Codex" because of where it is held ([Bibliodyssey](https://bibliodyssey.blogspot.com/2010/02/oldest-book-from-americas.html)). The "Dresden Codex" may be seen [here](https://katalog.slub-dresden.de/id/0-1646762169).;xNLx;;xNLx;Printing Press: Jan Collaert I, "The Invention of Copper Engraving," plate 19 from New Inventions of Modern Times [Nova Reperta], ca. 1600 ([Met Museum](https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/659685)).;xNLx;;xNLx;Digital Age: Computer Circuit Board, [Public Domain](https://www.publicdomainpictures.net/en/view-image.php?image=281573&picture=computer-circuit-board).;xNLx;;xNLx;This timeline benefits from a number of sources, including Jeremy Norman's [HistoryofInformation.com](https://www.historyofinformation.com/index.php), the [History of Printing Timeline](https://printinghistory.org/timeline/) from the American History of Printing Association, and the invaluable [Wikimedia Commons](https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Main_Page). Images are shared under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) license unless otherwise stated. All errors are my own.;xNLx;;xNLx;Compiled by Miriam Jones, Humanities and Languages, University of New Brunswick Saint John, in Menahkwesk on the unceded land of the Wabanaki Confederacy.

0100-01-01 00:00:00

TIMELINE: Western calligraphy

Click below to visit a Timeline of the development of calligraphy in Europe and North America, with a focus on Britain.

0105-01-01 00:00:00

Papermaking invented

Invention of the papermaking process credited to Ts'ai Lun [Cai Lun] during the Han Dynasty of China.

0196 BC-01-01 00:00:00

Rosetta Stone

The Rosetta Stone was made: a stela carrying a priestly decree from the reign of Ptolemy V in three languages: Egyptian hieroglyphs, demotic and Greek script.

0200 BC-01-01 00:00:00


Processed animal skin believed first to have been used as a writing surface in Pergamon (Anatolian Greece, Asia Minor, now Turkey) ca. 200 BCE.

0256-01-01 00:00:00

Pi Yu Jing

The oldest known paper book, Pi Yu Jing, composed of six different materials ca. 256 CE.

0325-01-01 00:00:00

Codex Vaticanus

Codex Vaticanus is one of the oldest copies of the Bible extant. It is written in uncial majuscules on 759 leaves of vellum.

0330-01-01 00:00:00

Codex Sinaiticus

Codex Sinaiticus is a 4th century (after 325 CE) manuscript Bible written in Greek in uncial letters on parchment.

0400-01-01 00:00:00

Codex Alexandrinus

Codex Alexandrinus is a 5th century manuscript Bible written in Greek in uncial letters on parchment.

0450-01-01 00:00:00

Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus

Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus is a 5th-century Greek MS of the Bible (ca. 450) that was discovered overwritten by a later (12-century) text.

0500 BC-01-01 00:00:00


Amate, a beaten paper-like material made from bark, was made in Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica ca. 500 BCE.

0500 BC-01-01 00:00:00

Mesoamerican scripts

Mesoamerica, before 500 BCE, was one of four sites where written language is traditionally held to have independently developed. The other three sites were Mesopotamia (ca. 3400 – 3100 BCE), Egypt (ca. 3250 BCE), and China (1200 BCE), though modern scholars would add Indus script (3500 BC – 1900 BC) to the list.

0623-01-01 00:00:00

Woodblock printing

Woodblock printing process develops under reign of Emperor Taizong of the Tang Dynasty.

0711-01-01 00:00:00

Papermaking spreads to Europe

Moors invade Spain, introducing papermaking techniques from the east.

0768-01-01 00:00:00

A Million prints

Empress Shotoku of Japan commissioned a million printed copies of a Buddhist charm.

0800 BC-01-01 00:00:00

Greek alphabetic script

Earliest examples of Greek alphabetic script.

0800-01-01 00:00:00

Book of Kells

The Book of Kells, an illuminated Latin manuscript Gospel, was produced in Ireland and Britain ca. 800.

0868-01-01 00:00:00

The Diamond Sutra, earliest printed book

The Diamond Sutra, a Chinese translation of a Buddhist text, is the earliest printed book that can be dated.

0932-01-01 00:00:00

Mass-production of books in China

Chinese printers adapt Wood-block printing to mass-produce classical books.

1050-01-01 00:00:00

Movable clay type

Movable clay type is developed in China but is not practical.

1100 BC-01-01 00:00:00

Phoenician alphabet

Phoenician alphabet

1151-01-01 00:00:00

First papermill in Europe

First papermill in Europe at Xàtiva (Spain).

1200-01-01 00:00:00

"Dresden codex"

"The Dresden codex is believed to be a copy of an original text that was composed between about 700 to 900 AD, prompting some historians to assert that it's the earliest known book from the Americas. The surviving copy may have been one of a number of pre-Columbian works sent to Europe by Hernán Cortés in 1519" (Bibliodyssey).

1234-01-01 00:00:00

Movable metal type

Movable metal type printing is invented in Goryeo, Korea.

1282-01-01 00:00:00


Watermarks first used in Italian-made paper.

1309-01-01 00:00:00

Paper first used in England.

1377-01-01 00:00:00


The world's oldest extant book printed with movable metal type, Baekun Hwasang Chorok Buljo Jikji Simche Yojeol (Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters), was published in Cheungju, Korea.

1400-01-01 00:00:00

TIMELINE: Women and literacy in the Renaissance Era

Click below to visit a timeline by students of ENGL3611: Book Production (Winter 2022) called "Women and literacy in the Renaissance Era."

1436-01-01 00:00:00

TIMELINE: Expansion of the printing press over time and geographical space: Germany through Europe

Click below to visit a timeline by students of ENGL3611: Book Production (Winter 2022) called "Expansion of the printing press over time and geographical space: Germany through Europe."

1438-01-01 00:00:00

Movable type in Europe

1438–44Adjustable type mold developed by Johannes Gutenberg in Mainz, Germany.

1454-01-01 00:00:00

First document printed in Europe

The first dated European document is a papal indulgence attributed to Gutenberg.

1455-01-01 00:00:00

Gutenberg Bible

The first book printed in Europe from movable type, the Gutenberg Bible, is published in Mainz, Germany.

1476-01-01 00:00:00

First English press

Caxton sets up the first English printing press, in London.

1493-01-01 00:00:00

Nuremberg Chronicle

Nuremberg Chronicle is one of the first printed books in Europe to successfully integrate illustrations and text.

1495-01-01 00:00:00

First papermill in England

First mention of a paper mill in England.

1500-01-01 00:00:00

TIMELINE: Early-modern women calligraphers

Click below to visit a timeline about women calligraphers in Europe, 1500—1800.

1529-01-01 00:00:00


French typographer and printer Geoffrey Tory (c.1480-1533) published his classic text on typographic proportions and design, Champfleury: The Art and Science of the Proportion of the Attic or Ancient Roman Letters, According to the Human Body and Face.

1537-01-01 00:00:00

Qur'an printed in Arabic

In Venice, Paganino and Alessandro Paganini produced the first printed edition of the Qur'an in Arabic.

1539-01-01 00:00:00

First printer in North America

Juan Pablos (Giovanni Paoli) became the first printer in North America (Mexico City).

1563-01-01 00:00:00

France outlaws unlicensed printing

Printing in France forbidden without royal permission under penalty of death.

1595-01-01 00:00:00

First Global Atlas

A year after the death of Flemish cartographer Gerardus Mercator, his son publishes a bound collection of his maps: Atlas, or Cosmographic Meditations on the Creation of the World and the Form of Creation.

1600 BC-01-01 00:00:00

Writing develops in China

Writing developed in China during the Shang Dynasty. China was one of four sites where written language is traditionally held to have independently developed. The other three were Mesopotamia (ca. 3400 – 3100 BCE), Egypt (ca. 3250 BCE), and Mesoamerica (before 500 BCE), though modern scholars would add Indus script (3500 BC – 1900 BC) to the list.

1600-01-01 00:00:00

Spain outlaws papermaking in colonies

Spain outlaws indigenous papermaking in its New World colonies, ca. 1600.

1605-01-01 00:00:00

First weekly newspaper

The first weekly newspaper began publication in Antwerp, Belgium.

1638-01-01 00:00:00

TIMELINE: Printing in America

Click below to visit a timeline by students of ENGL3611: Book Production (Winter 2022) called "Printing in America."

1640-01-01 00:00:00

Bay Psalm Book, first book published in English colonies

The first book published in England's American colonies was the Bay Psalm Book, a translation of the Psalms published in Cambridge, Mass.

1691-01-01 00:00:00

First papermill in America

Enter story info here

1702-01-01 00:00:00

First daily newspaper in English

The Daily Courant began publication in London.

1795-01-01 00:00:00

First Printing Presses in Australia and Oceania

The first printing press was established in Australia in 1795.

1798-01-01 00:00:00

Mechanization of papermaking

Louis-Nicolas Robert invented the papermaking machine.

1800-01-01 00:00:00

Cast-iron printing press

Lord Stanhope built the first printing press entirely made from cast iron.

ENGL3611 Book Production

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