Pandemics in History

0110-03-01 00:00:00

Malaria

Its a parasyte which originated 30 million years ago in the paleolithic period. It started afecting humans 2-3 million years ago in África and from this time forward spread among the world. There was a period in which the Malaria was spread a lot and not only affected people from África but many other countries and finally in 1995 in the United States they get erradicated the Malaria. Its main sympthoms are to have a very high fever, shivers, headache,upset stomach and vomit. It is transmitted by a parasyte which its like a mosquito bite and usually affect African kids because of the tropical climate. Around 440,000 people died because of this parasyte and the mayority of them are those kids of Africa. Unfortunately, there´s no vaccine approve for humans yet.

0165-01-01 00:00:00

Antonine plague

The Antonine plague was the first plague affecting globally the Western world. It affected all aspects of life of mankind in the Roman Empire: economics, politics, religion and the culture. The especialists set the mortality rate in the 10% of the population. On the other hand the existence of unified Roman Empire from culturally and territorially helped to spreading the plague as it could similarly occur in our society in a similar pandemic.

0540-01-01 00:00:00

The plague of Justinian

It is the first plague epidemic on record. The disease spread through Constantinople, a city of almost 800,000 inhabitants, at great speed. And from there to the whole Empire. Even Justinian himself fell victim to the plague, although he eventually recovered. By the end of the epidemic, the imperial capital had lost almost 40% of its population, and throughout the empire it had claimed the lives of 4 million people. The economic consequences were catastrophic, as there were times when the number of dead exceeded the number of living. This plague is caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. Normally this disease is transmitted from rodents to humans, being the transmitting vehicle par excellence the black rat.

0600-01-02 00:00:00

Leprosy

Leprosy is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, an acid-fast, rod-shaped bacillus. The disease mainly affects the skin, the peripheral nerves, mucosa of the upper respiratory tract, and the eyes. Leprosy is curable and treatment in the early stages can prevent disability.

1346-03-01 00:00:00

THE BLACK PESTE

Chronological date: 14th century, between 1346 and 1347. Greatest plague epidemic in the history of Europe. The Black Death of the mid-14th century spread rapidly through the regions of the Mediterranean basin and the rest of Europe within a few years. The Black Death became an inseparable traveling companion of the European population, until its last outbreak in the early 18th century. It was an unexpected, unknown and fatal guest, of which both its origin and its therapy were unknown; on the other hand, it affected everyone, with little distinction between rich and poor. They attributed the disease to miasmas, that is, to the corruption of the air caused by the emanation of decomposing organic matter. There were those who imagined that the plague could have an astrological origin. All these facts were considered supernatural phenomena attributable to the divine anger for the sins of humanity. The fear of a possible contagion on a planetary scale of the epidemic, which had then spread through large parts of Asia, gave a strong impetus to scientific research. The bacterium was present in homes for a period of 16 to 23 days before the first symptoms of the disease appeared. The disease manifested itself in the groin, armpits or neck, with inflammation of one of the nodes of the lymphatic system accompanied by suppuration and high fevers. Septicemic plague, in which the contagion passed into the blood, which manifested itself in the form of visible dark spots on the skin - hence the name "black death" given to the epidemic. In absolute terms, the 80 million Europeans were reduced to just 30 between 1347 and 1353. Subsequent outbreaks of the epidemic nipped Europe's demographic recovery in the bud, which was not consolidated until almost a century later, in the mid-15th century.

1346-03-01 00:00:00

BLACK DEATH

It was the first most devating pandemic in all Europe. FIrstly srtated in Asia buy finally arrived to Europe and the first city that was appeared in Mesina

1520-01-16 00:00:00

VIRUELA

-called variola virus -Its name refers to the pustules that appeared on the skin of the sufferer through objects and clothes touched by the infected person. -It was a serious and extremely contagious disease. -Mortality rates of up to 30%. A period of dramatic expansion during the 18th century, infecting and disfiguring millions of people. -Human beings have managed to eradicate it through vaccination. -last case in 1977 -It lasts between five and 10 days. Other signs and symptoms, which may appear one or two days before the rash, include the following: Fever,loss of appetite

1520-04-02 23:22:42

The Smallpox

Smallpox was an infectious disease that was present for a long period of time. The disease spread throughout history through periodic outbreaks: In 17th century Europe, an estimated 400,000 people died each year from smallpox. By 1520, however, smallpox had spread through the Valley of Mexico, and around 250,000 people in the Aztec capital had fallen victim to the virus. Smallpox was the first pandemic to hit the Americas, with 90% of the population dying. Also, among the first to suffer from smallpox in the Americas were the inhabitants of the Caribbean islands. Initial symptoms included fever and vomiting,5 followed in subsequent days by the formation of mouth sores and rashes. After a few days, the rashes developed into dense, fluid-laden bumps with a characteristic depression in the centre. As the disease progressed, the bumps turned into pustules and then crusts, which fell off and left the characteristic scars on the skin. However, research by Edward Jenner (1749-1823) led to the first vaccine. Although it remained a problem in the 20th century, it was eradicated in 1980.

1648-10-26 21:45:08

Yellow Fever

Yellow fever appeared in America, in 1648, concretely, in Mérida, Yucatán. Mosquitoes infected with the virus, and it arrived from the American mainland, in the ships of the fleets that were heading to Spain, to establish in our homeland the severe yellow fever epidemic that devastated Havana and the entire island a year later. This epidemic officially registered as the first yellow fever to occur in the country, caused high mortality, which has been the highest of all time.

1665-01-01 00:00:00

The Great Plague Of London

The Great Plague of London, lasting from 1665 to 1666, was the last major epidemic of the bubonic plague to occur in England. It happened within the centuries-long Second Pandemic,

1817-03-01 00:00:00

Cholera

Cholera, is is an acute diarrhoeal infection (intestine infection) caused by eating or drinking food or water that is contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. It was originated in Russia in 1817. Spreading through feces-infected water and food, the bacterium was passed along to British soldiers who brought it to India where millions more died. The reach of the British Empire and its navy spread cholera to Spain, Africa, Indonesia, China, Japan, Italy, Germany and America, where it killed 150,000 people. Cholera is an extremely serious disease that can cause severe acute watery diarrhoea with severe dehydration. It takes between 12 hours and 5 days for a person to show symptoms after consuming contaminated food or water. Cholera affects both children and adults and can kill within hours if untreated. Researchers have estimated that every year, there are 1.3 to 4.0 million cases of cholera, and 21 000 to 143 000 deaths worldwide due to the infection. The death toll is of more than 1 million people. Prevention of cholera mainly consists in providing clean water and proper sanitation to the communities, while people need to have access to adequate food safety as well as to basic hygiene practices. 80% of the cases can be treated by using only oral rehydration salts.

1881-03-01 00:00:00

THE TYPHUS

Typhus is an epidemic disease. The disease appeared during the crusades. Typhus was a major disease during the U.S. Civil War, it was the most frequent cause of death by disease in the Civil War.spreads from rats to fleas and humans. Typhus appeared in the southern United States, particularly in California and Texas.

1908-01-01 00:00:00

POLIOMYELITIS

The first time that Poliomyelitis that kwows diagnosed was in 1905, but it was actually described by a German man in 1840, and the last case was in 1998. Poliomyelitis or infantile paralysis is an infectious disease that mainly affects the nervous system. The disease is caused by the poliovirus. It is called infantile because the people who contract the disease are mainly children, between 4 and 15 years old. It is transmitted from person to person through respiratory secretions. Most poliomyelitis infections are asymptomatic. Poliomyelitis infects and destroys motor neurons, causing muscle weakness. The illness afects the central nervous system. In its acute form it causes inflammation in the motor neurons of the spinal cord and brain and leads to paralysis, muscle atrophy, and very often deformity. At worst it can cause permanent paralysis or death by paralyzing the diaphragm. Poliomyelitis was first described by the German Jakob Heine in 1840 and several categories of poliomyelitis were defined to classify the extent and severity of the disease, one called Abortive Polio, which did not affect the central nervous system, and the other is older, paralyzed or not. John Franklin Enders was the one who developed the vaccine, but in 1964 another vaccine was developed, the one in 1964.

1918-03-01 00:00:00

Spanish FLu

It appeared in a hospital at the UUEE. It was name sapnish flu because of the neutrality of the country during the first world at war. It killed between 50 and 100 millions people

1957-02-01 08:11:35

Gripe Asiáica

It emerged in Yunnan (China) and spread to Singapore in February 1957. It is believed to have originated from a combination of avian (from wild ducks) and human influenza strains, mediated by the swine race. It reached Hong Kong in April and spread within two months to Singapore, Taiwan and Japan, before jumping to the United States, India and Australia. In Spain, it infected a third of the population. The first wave affected mainly children, adolescents and young people, while the second wave affected adults more. The rapid development of a vaccine and antibiotics to combat secondary infections kept it at bay, although it left around two million dead (10,000 of them in Spain, where more than four million people fell ill). Its lethality was low, but it spread very quickly. It gradually disappeared and has not been included in the influenza vaccine since 1968.

1958-01-01 00:00:00

MONKEYPOX

It is a disease caused by monkeypox virus, a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae. Is a zoonotic disease found in humans and some animals. It is mostly found and it was spread in tropical rainforest areas of Central and West Africa.

1968-07-13 00:00:00

Hong Kong flu

Patient 0 emerged from that Asian city in 1968 and was named after it. But in fact, it became a worldwide scare and more than a million people lost their lives. Some European countries began to suffer from its effects. The virus originated in birds and the intermediate host was the pig, which was the animal that made human transmission possible. Hong Kong flu is still an active virus today. It is considered to be "the most important and most problematic Influenza A virus in humans". It also has similarities to the current pandemic coronavirus.

1976-03-19 00:00:00

Ebola

Ebola is a rare but severe illness in humans, that is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human contact. It first appeared in 1976 in South Sudan and in Yambuku but there was a big outbreak in west Africa in 2014-2015, it started in Guinea and moved to Sierra Leone and Liberia. This virus shows up 2 to 21 days after the infection and causes: fever, body aches, diarrhea, headache,sore throat and lack of appetite. If the disease get worse it can cause bleeding inside the body. It kills up to 90% of the people who are infected. There’s no cure to it yet but there are two drug treatments which have been approved for treating it. There’s a vaccine to prevent Ebola but the best way to avoid catching the disease is by not traveling to areas where the virus is found

1983-03-01 00:00:00

THE VIH

The human immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus that causes HIV infection. HIV is spread when infected blood, infected semen or infected vaginal fluids enter a person's body and is the virus that causes AIDS.

1996-01-10 00:00:00

Avian influenza virus

Avian influenza is a variety of influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds.

2002-03-16 00:00:00

sars

is a virus called severe acute respiratory syndrome that began in febfruary 2002 on asia.

2007-01-01 11:23:08

ZIKA VIRUS DISEASE

First identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys and later identified in humans in 1952, Zika is a virus primarily transmitted by the bite of an infected mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti, in tropical and subtropical regions.

2008-09-01 00:00:00

Swine Flu

SWINE FLU When did the disease arise? This flu arised in September, 2008 Where did it appear? It first appeared on Mexico Where did it spread? It was spread from Mexico to the U.S to tropical regions of Asia, Central and South America, and South Africa. It was found out that it was originated from pigs in a very small region of central Mexico. So it had been present for some months before it was considered a pandemic Sympthoms: Its symthoms are very similar to regular flu but it also includes fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, body aches, headaches, chills, fatigue, diarrhea and vomiting. Some “rare” sympthoms are seizures, confusion or sudden cognitive or behavioural changes. Treatment/ Vaccine: (2009) The vaccine was discovered but its production was stopped (2010) Everybody in the U.S could be vaccinated, so it wasn’t mandatory (2010 Midsummer) Deaths and hospitalizations continued among the people who weren’t vaccinated. It’s said that this flu hasn’t ended yet as many other flu

Pandemics in History

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