SOME EXAMPLES OF EUROPEAN MIGRATION

This timeline gives some examples of migration through European history

0900 BC-01-01 00:00:00

GREEKS IN THE MEDITERRANEAN

Greek speaking people moved to Mediterranean and the Black Sea due to the population growth and the scarcity of farm land.

1000-01-01 00:00:00

CHRISTIANS TO HOLY LANDS

Many Frankish settlers to Holy Land and the Crusader states trying to get economic advantage and become rich

1500-01-01 00:00:00

EUROPEANS TO THE NEW WORLD

Europeans, mainly Spanish and Portuguese, but also English and Dutch people, emigrated to Middle and South America in search for economic advantages, gold and riches.

1572-01-01 00:00:00

FRENCH HUGUENOTS TO ENGLAND AND THE NETHERLANDS

Hundreds of thousands of Huguenots, members of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, fled from France to England and North America after the Massacre in 1572. The situation became worse for the ones who stayed, after the severe persecution of 1685, when they were obliged to flee or convert to Catholicism.

1600-01-01 00:00:00

SWISS TO RUSSIAN EMPIRE

Swiss specialists with knowledge and money were invited to come to Russia. The emigration gave them new opportunities for their trades.

1600-01-01 00:00:00

EUROPEANS TO SOUTH AFRICA

Dutch, German, British and French settlers established in South Africa due to unemployment, of their original countries and the good climate, fertile soil and opportunities for trade in South Africa

1815-01-01 00:00:00

SOUTHERN EUROPEANS TO LATIN AMERICA

From the end of the Napoleonic Wars until 1920, 55 million Europeans emigrated 22% to Latin America. Argentina and Brazil were the places mainly Italians, Spaniards and Portuguese migrated. The reasons for these migrations were the population growth and crop failures in their homeland that made them travel looking for a better life

1815-01-01 00:00:00

NORTHERN EUROPEANS TO AMERICA

From the end of the Napoleonic Wars until 1920, 55 million Europeans emigrated. 78% to North America, and 22% to Latin America. The Irish, Swedish, Germans went to the United States The reasons for these migrations were the population growth and crop failures in their homeland that made them travel looking for a better life.

1850-01-01 00:00:00

MASURIANS, KASHUBIANS, SILESIANS and POLES TO THE RUHR

People from poor rural areas travel to the Ruhr Area (Prussia, later Germany) to find employment in the mining, steel and construction industries.

1851-01-01 00:00:00

BRITISH AND IRISH TO AUSTRALIA

British and Irish settlers, and later other Europeans, went to Australia, after the discovery of gold in Virginia (English colony) in 1851.

1919-01-01 00:00:00

RUSSIANS TO THE ENTENTE OCCUPIED CONSTANTINOPLE

In the Russian Civil War that occurred after the Russian Revolution in 1917, many counter-revolutionary (“white”) Russian were evacuated from Odessa and the Crimea.

1922-01-01 00:00:00

GREEK REFUGEES TO GREECE AND TURKISH REFUGEES TO TURKEY

After the Greco-Turkish War both governments signed a population exchange treaty in 1922. About 1,500,000 Orthodox Christians from Turkey and about 500,000 Muslims from Greece were brought to the other state.

1930-01-01 00:00:00

IRISH TO THE UK

Many Irish moved to UK looking for work and better living conditions because of the poor economic conditions at home in Ireland.

1936-07-19 00:00:00

SPANISH REFUGEES TO FRANCE

Many Spanish Republicans fled to France, England, the Soviet Union and different places in South America, during the civil war as the nationalist that started the coup d'état were winning the war. The Republicans also fled after the civil war to avoid reprisals.

1939-01-01 00:00:00

EAST AND BALTIC EUROPEANS TO PRISONER CAMPS

In World War II, the Soviet Union created a camp system to use prisoners of war and foreign civilians for labour. Poles, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians, Hungarians and Germans were captured or arrested and sent to these camps. They were employed under very harsh and often deadly conditions for government projects and the reconstruction of the country after the war.

1939-09-01 00:00:00

JEWISH CHILDREN TO GREAT BRITAIN

Many Polish Jews were moved from the region between Germany and Poland to Great Britain in the beginnings of WWII

1945-09-01 00:00:00

EAST GERMAN REFUGEES TO THE WEST

East German refugees fleeing from East Prussia to the western parts of Germany

1945-09-01 00:00:00

CITIZENS OF FORMER COLONIES TO EUROPE

After the independence of their countries from 1945 onwards many citizens of former colonies went to Europe, like e.g. Indians to Great Britain, Algerians to France, Congolese to Belgium or Indonesians and Surinamese to the Netherlands.

1945-09-01 00:00:00

RUSSIANS, UKRAINIANS, BELARUSSIANS TO ESTONIA AND LATVIA

Russian, Ukrainians and Belorussian migrated to Estonia, Latvia to work in factories and construction and in the establishment of Soviet military bases

1945-12-01 00:00:00

HUNGARIANS TO EUROPE AND USA

After the abatement of the Hungarian Uprising in 1956 by the Soviet Union over 200.000 Hungarians left the country during the time that the borders were open, escaping from communism and crossed the borders to Austria and Yugoslavia. About 38,000 found refuge in the United States.

1950-01-01 00:00:00

MIGRANTS TO THE INDUSTRIALISED GERMANIES

West Germany signed bilateral recruitment agreements with a number of countries: Italy (1955), Spain (1960), Greece (1960), Turkey (1961), Morocco (1963), South Korea (1963), Portugal (1964), Tunisia (1965) and Yugoslavia (1968). East Germany knew also a labor shortage which was caused by Germans fleeing to the west. So the GDR was also contracting foreign workers. They came mainly from the Vietnam, North Korea, Angola, Mozambique, and Cuba.

1959-01-01 00:00:00

RURAL SPANIARDS TO INDUSTRIALISED SPAIN

With the industrialisation many people from poorer, rural regions in Spain moved to the industrialised areas of Madrid, Basque Country and Catalonia.

1975-01-01 00:00:00

VIETNAMESE TO WESTERN COUNTRIES

After the end of the Vietnam war in 1975, especially in 1978 and 1979, until the 1990ies up to 800,000 people left Vietnam. These refugees tried to reach Southeast Asian countries by boat. This is why they are also called “boat people”. Many found a new home being settled from refugee camps to countries like Canada, Australia, France, West Germany, and Great Britain.

1980-01-01 00:00:00

MOROCCANS TO SPAIN AND ITALY

Moroccans came to Spain and Italy answering to the demand for low-skilled labor

1999-03-01 00:00:00

KOSOVARS TO EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

By the end of April 1999, the U.N. High Commissioner for Refugees estimates that about 600,000 residents of Kosovo, majority of ethnic Albanians, had become refugees; another 400,000 were displaced inside Kosovo, meaning that half of the two million residents of Kosovo were refugees or internally displaced people as a consequence of the NATO attacks during the Kosovo war. Most of them moved to Albania, and also Macedonia.

SOME EXAMPLES OF EUROPEAN MIGRATION

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