The Co-Evolution of the Moving Image, Consciousness, Culture, and Society

This timeline represents a preliminary mapping of the co-evolution of the moving image in all its evolving forms, and consciousness, culture and society using a transdisciplinary and Integrally-informed cinematic analytical meta-approach to explore the history of cinema, self and world from 1878 through the present.

This timeline is a product of research being conducted by Mark Allan Kaplan, Ph.D. through the [Integral Cinema Project](;xNLx;;xNLx;The mission and purpose of THE INTEGRAL CINEMA PROJECT is to develop and test a comprehensive model for Integral cinematic media theory, creation, and reception with the goal of creating and disseminating cinematic media that more powerfully and deeply entertains, enlightens, transforms, and supports the healthy evolution of individuals and the collective, while training a generation of evolutionary and integrally-informed cinematic artists and theorists to do the same.;xNLx;;xNLx;REFERENCES;xNLx;;xNLx;Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (2013). The academy awards database. Retrieved from;xNLx;;xNLx;American Film Institute (1998-2008). AFI's 100 years: The complete lists. Retrieved from;xNLx;;xNLx;Bordwell, D. (1998). On the history of film style. Harvard University Press.;xNLx;;xNLx;Dirks, T. (2013). Film history by decade. AMC Filmsite (Available at:;xNLx;;xNLx;Monaco, P. (2010). A history of American movies: A film-by-film look at the art, craft, and business of cinema. Scarecrow Press. ;xNLx;;xNLx;Morin, E. (1956/2005).  The Cinema, or The Imaginary Man.  (Trans. Lorraine Mortimer).  Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.;xNLx;;xNLx;Morin, E. (1972/2005). The Stars. (Trans. Richard Howard).  Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.;xNLx;;xNLx;Nowell-Smith, G. (Ed.) (1999). The Oxford history of world cinema. Oxford University Press. ;xNLx;;xNLx;Quart, L. & Auster, A. (2011). American film and society since 1945. Praeger.;xNLx;;xNLx;Rausch, A. (2004). Turning points in film history. Citadel.;xNLx;;xNLx;Rombes, N. (2009). Cinema in the digital age. Wallflower Press. ;xNLx; ;xNLx;Salt, B. (2009). Film style and technology: History and analysis. Starword.;xNLx;;xNLx;Thompson, K. and Bordwell, D. (2009). Film history: An introduction. McGrew-Hill.;xNLx;;xNLx;Wikipedia (;xNLx;

1878-01-01 00:00:00

The Gilded Age

The Gilded Age marks the period of rapid industrial, economic, and population growth in the U.S.

1878-06-15 00:00:00

The Birth of the Moving Image- Muybridge's Galloping Horse

Photographer Eadweard Muybridge, with a commission by Leland Sanford captured the first moving image of a galloping horse on June 15, 1878.

1878-06-15 00:00:00

Archaic Structures of Consciousness in Cinema

The medium began with sensory-motor capturing of the world without any structures of interpretation.

1879-01-01 00:00:00

Early Film Projector - The Zoopraxiscope

TECH: The zoopraxiscope is an early device for displaying motion pictures created by photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879.

1882-01-01 20:34:13

Marey's chronophotographic gun

TECH: Etienne Jules Marey invents the Photographic Gun or the Chronophotographe.

1883-01-19 13:59:22

Electricity Distribution Begins

TECH: The first electric lighting system employing overhead wires begins service in Roselle, New Jersey (it was built by Thomas Edison).

1884-10-14 00:00:00

1st Film in Roll Form

TECH: In 1884, George Eastman patented the first film in roll form to prove practicable.

1885-03-03 13:59:22

Celluloid Film Invented

TECH: American inventors George Eastman and Hannibal Goodwin each invent a sensitized celluloid base roll photographic film.

1888-01-10 11:26:54

1st motion picture camera & projector - Le Prince

TECH: Augustin Le Prince invents a single-lens motion picture camera and projector.

1888-01-10 11:26:54

Birth of the French Cinema

The French film industry is born when Augustin Le Prince invents a single-lens motion picture camera and projector.

1888-02-25 11:24:06

Birth of American Cinema

The birth of the motion picture industry in the United States began when Thomas Edison began working on creating a motion picture exhibition device, which would eventually become the Kinetoscope,

1888-10-14 11:26:54

1st celluloid film - "Roundhay Garden Scene"

The earliest celluloid film was shot by Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince using the Le Prince single-lens camera made in 1888.

1889-06-21 11:26:54

Birth of British Cinema

In 1889, British photographer and inventor William Friese-Greene patented his 'chronophotographic' camera, marking the beginning of cinema in Britain.

1889-12-31 14:53:57

1st American Movie - Monkeyshines No.1

Monkeyshines No.1 (1889 or 1890), an experimental film made to test the original cylinder format of the Kinetoscope, is believed to be the first film shot in the United States. Monkeyshines, No. 1 was shot by William K.L. Dickson and William Heise for the Edison labs. Scholars have differing opinions on whether the first was shot in June 1889 starring John Ott or sometime between November 21-27, 1890 starring G. Sacco Albanese. Both men were fellow lab workers at the company; contradictory evidence exists for each claim. Monkeyshines, No. 2 and Monkeyshines, No. 3 quickly followed to test further conditions. These films were intended to be internal tests of the new camera system, and were not created for commercial use; their rise to prominence resulted much later due to work by film historians. All three films show a blurry figure in white standing in one place making large gestures and are only a few seconds long.

1891-01-26 17:20:38

Birth of Australian Cinema & World's 1st Film Studio

Australian Cinema was born with the opening of the world's first film studio, the Limelight Department, in 1891.

1892-10-01 11:24:06

Kinetoscope - Early Film Viewing Device

TECH: Thomas Edison employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson invents the Kinetograph, which will later be renamed the Kinetoscope.

1892-12-31 04:45:15

1st American Film Studio (Edison)

BUSINESS: Thomas Edison builds the first film studio, Edison's Black Maria in West Orange, New Jersey.

1894-01-07 11:24:06

1st Copyrighted Film - "Fred Ott's Sneeze"

The first U.S. copyright for an identifiable motion picture was given to Edison for Fred Ott's Sneeze.

1895-02-13 02:09:24

The Cinematographe - Early Film Camera-Projector

TECH: Auguste and Louis Lumiere patent and later demonstrate the Cinematographe in Paris, France.

1895-03-22 02:09:24

1st Cinematographe - "Workers Leaving The Factory"

"Workers Leaving The Lumière Factory in Lyon" (also known as La Sortie des usines Lumière à Lyon (original title).

1895-05-20 02:09:24

1st Paid Audience Screening - "Griffo vs. Barnett"

First film projected before a paying audience was the 4-minute long Young Grrffo vs. "Battling" Charles Barnet in NYC on May 20, 1895.

1895-06-10 22:12:54

1st Fictional Film - "L'Arroseur arrosé"

"L'Arroseur arrosé" is a French short black-and-white silent film considered to be the first screen comedy and fictional film.

1895-10-01 08:53:11

Birth of German Cinema

The history of cinema in Germany can be traced back to 1895.

1896-01-01 03:02:13

Birth of Scandinavian Cinema

Cinema spread through the Scandinavian countries, starting in Denmark in 1896.

1896-01-26 03:22:13

1st Special Effect - "The Vanishing Lady"

Georges Méliès discovers and develops stop-motion photography.

1896-01-26 03:22:13

Magical Structures of Consciousness in Cinema

The medium evolved with explorations of expressive structures of the form.

1896-04-02 22:12:54

1st Female Filmmaker - Alice Guy-Blaché

Alice Guy-Blaché was a French pioneer filmmaker who was the first female director in the motion-picture industry.

1896-05-01 03:47:46

Birth of Latin American Cinema

Cinema was progressively born in various Latin American countries starting in Mexico in 1896, to Cuba, Argentina, & Venezuela in 1897, Brazil & Uruguay in 1898, Chile in 1902, Columbio in 1905, Bolivia in 1906, and Peru in 1911.

1896-10-19 07:57:32

1st Movie Theater - Edisonia Vitascope Hall

The world's first permanent movie theatre exclusively designed for showing motion pictures was the Edisonia Vitascope Hall in Buffalo, New York.

1896-12-31 07:57:32

1st Screen Kiss - "The Kiss"

"The Kiss" (1896) (aka The May Irwin Kiss) was the first film of a couple kissing at a time when kissing in public was frowned upon.

1897-06-01 04:18:00

Birth of Spanish Cinema

Filmmaking first began in Spain In 1897.

1897-12-01 07:21:08

Birth of Japanese Cinema

Cinema in Japan emerged between 1897 and 1899.

1898-04-25 01:17:07

Spanish-American War & The Birth of Propaganda Filmmaking

The Spanish-American War of 1898 was also the birth of propaganda filmmaking, when Vitagraph Studios in America created a series of short silent films to support the war.

1899-01-25 09:13:10

1st Film with Pre-Arranged Scenes - "Cinderella"

Geores Méliès’s "Cinderella" (1899) introduced pre-arranged scenes to the cinematic form.

1902-09-01 09:13:10

Birth of the Narrative Film

Georges Méliès's "Trip to the Moon" and Edwin S. Porter's "Life of an American Fireman" and "The Great Train Robbery" ushered in the narrative film.

1902-09-01 09:13:10

Mythic Structures of Consciousness in Cinema

The medium evolved further with a striving toward more powerful and grander expressions within the form.

1903-01-01 10:57:18

Birth of Italian Cinema

The Italian film industry took shape between 1903 and 1908.

1905-11-01 14:49:19

Birth of Chinese Cinema

The first Chinese film was made in 1905.

1906-04-21 00:04:56

Birth of Film As a Historical Document

Filmmaking takes an unexpected historical role by recording activities along Market Street, before the destruction from the San Francisco earthquake.

1906-05-01 13:49:19

Rational Structures of Consciousness in Cinema

With the awakening to films capacity as a historical document the striving toward greater realism became part of the evolution of the medium.

1906-12-26 08:58:21

1st Full-Length Feature Film

The Australian film "The Story of the Kelly Gang" (1906) ran for more than an hour, and was the world's first full-length feature film.

1908-01-01 13:49:19

Birth of the Newsreel

A newsreel was a form of short documentary film created by Pathé Frères of France in 1908.

1908-08-17 19:25:29

1st Animated Film - "Fantasmagorie"

Fantasmagorie is an 1908 French animated film by Émile Cohl. It is considered by film historians to be the first animated cartoon.

1908-10-28 09:32:04

Birth of Russian Cinema

The Russian Film Industry begins with Russia's first fictional narrative film "Stenka Razin."

1908-12-01 12:34:32

The Motion Picture Patents Company Monopoly Formed

The Motion Picture Patents Company (MPPC, also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major American film companies.

1910-01-01 03:07:24

Birth of the Hollywood Star System

Star system is born in which actors started to receive on-screen credit for their work with Florence Lawrence ("The Biograph Girl").

1910-03-10 12:34:32

Hollywood - American Movie Industry Moves West

The movie industry begins its move from the East Coast to Hollywood, California.

1911-03-23 23:50:09

1st Movie Close-Up

D.W Griffith shows the first major close-up shot on film with the successful release of "The Lonedale Operator."

1911-08-11 08:43:34

Birth of Fan Magazines

Photoplay, the first true movie fan magazine, debuted in 1912, and gave rise to the whole idea of a celebrity culture.

1912-05-18 17:36:15

Birth of Cinema in India

The first Indian film released in India was "Shree pundalik" a silent film in Marathi by Dadasaheb Torne on 18 May 1912 at 'Coronation Cinematograph', Mumbai.

The Co-Evolution of the Moving Image, Consciousness, Culture, and Society

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