Patrimony Laws: A History of Preservation

This interactive timeline provides a detailed history of legal protections for cultural heritage in the Middle East and North Africa, highlighting how the region’s governments have long sought to safeguard their past for future generations, and where those protections stand today.

Instructions;xNLx;;xNLx;This timeline is interactive and user-friendly, and can be accessed via any modern browser, as well as on mobile Safari for an iPhone or iPad.;xNLx;;xNLx;To change the timeline from 2D to 3D, or vice-versa, click the circular button in the lower left corner.;xNLx;;xNLx;To navigate the timeline in 3D, scroll up and down to move through the years. In 2D, scroll left and right. In both versions, the viewer can use the slider at the bottom of the screen, by moving it left and right.;xNLx;;xNLx;Laws in orange are past laws, which are no longer in effect, whereas laws in blue are the current laws in effect for those countries.;xNLx;;xNLx;To learn more about each law, simply click the law itself in 3D, or the “More” button in the lower right corner of the law in 2D, and a dark screen will pop up further describing the patrimony and export for the law in that country.;xNLx;;xNLx;When available, links to the full legal text are provided. To follow those links, click "Find Out More" at the bottom of each description.

1891-12-28 13:00:35

Egypt

Decree on Excavations

1905-01-01 00:00:00

Sudan

Antiquities Ordinance [English]

1912-01-01 00:00:00

Egypt

Law No. 14

1918-10-09 15:02:34

Egypt

Law No. 8

1924-01-21 06:59:39

Iraq

Law of Antiquities of 1924

1929-01-01 00:00:00

Palestine

Law on Antiquities (Title V)

1933-01-01 00:00:00

Syria

Decision No. 166 LR of 1933

1933-11-07 14:48:50

Lebanon

Decree No. 166 [French]

1934-01-01 00:00:00

Jordan

Law No. 24

1936-04-20 00:00:00

Iraq

Law No. 59 [English]

1947-01-01 00:00:00

Syria

Legislative Decree No. 89

1951-01-01 00:00:00

Egypt

Law No. 215 [French]

1952-01-01 00:00:00

Sudan

Ordinance No. 2 [Sudanese]

1953-01-01 00:00:00

Jordan

Law No. 33 [English]

1955-01-01 00:00:00

Yemen

Antiquities Ordinances [English]

1960-04-14 14:48:50

Kuwait

Princely Decree No. 11 [English]

1963-10-26 00:00:00

Syria

Decree-Law No. 222 [English]

1966-01-01 00:00:00

Palestine

Provisional Law on Antiquities No. 51

1967-12-20 14:48:50

Algeria

Ordinance No. 67-281 [French]

1968-01-01 00:00:00

Jordan

Law No. 26

1970-02-15 14:45:49

Bahrain

Bahrain Antiquities Ordinance (Law No. 2) [English]

1970-07-01 00:00:00

Yemen

Law No. 13 [English]

1972-01-01 00:00:00

Mauritania

Law No. 160 [Arabic]

1972-01-01 00:00:00

Yemen

Decree-Law No. 7 on Antiquities [Arabic]

1972-08-03 00:00:00

Saudi Arabia

Law No. 26 [English]

1972-10-22 14:35:45

Yemen

Law No. 12

1974-07-17 06:17:23

Iraq

Amendment (Law No. 120) [English]

1975-07-17 06:17:23

Iraq

Amendment (Law No. 164) [English]

1976-01-01 00:00:00

Yemen

Law No. 24

1980-02-01 00:00:00

Oman

Sultani Decree No. 6/80 [Arabic]

1980-02-26 17:23:23

Qatar

Law No. 2 [Arabic]

1980-06-05 04:28:16

Morocco

Law No. 22-80

1983-03-03 00:00:00

Libya

Law No. 2 [Arabic]

1983-08-06 07:53:26

Egypt

Antiquities Protection Law No. 117 [English]

1985-02-20 17:01:01

Bahrain

Amendment (Decree-Law No. 177)

1986-05-09 05:46:58

Tunisia

Law No. 86-35 [English]

1988-06-01 00:00:00

Jordan

Law of Antiquities No. 21 [English]

1994-01-01 00:00:00

Tunisia

Law No. 94-35

1994-01-01 00:00:00

Kuwait

Amendment (Law No. 9) [Arabic]

1994-01-01 00:00:00

Yemen

Law No. 21 [English]

1994-07-07 11:44:19

Libya

Law No. 3

1995-01-01 00:00:00

Bahrain

Decree-Law No. 11 [English]

1995-01-01 00:00:00

Morocco

Law No. 22-80

1997-12-12 17:58:10

Yemen

Law No. 8

1998-01-01 00:00:00

Algeria

Law No. 98-04 [French]

2002-01-01 00:00:00

Iraq

Law No. 55 [English]

2005-01-01 00:00:00

Mauritania

Law No. 46 [French]

2006-01-20 12:53:41

Morocco

Amendment and Supplement (Law No. 19-05) [French]

2008-03-02 00:58:21

Lebanon

Amendment (Law No. 37) [English]

2010-01-13 22:39:22

Tunisia

Amendment (Law No. 2010-118)

Patrimony Laws: A History of Preservation

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