Informal Settlement in Syria

This timeline provides a preliminary overview of major events, including key laws, decrees, presidential recommendations, policies, programmes, and activities related to informal housing in Syria. It aims to contribute to understanding the approach of Syrian authorities to informal settlement in the decades preceding the event of 2011 in Syria.

Therefore, it focuses specifically on events that took place during the rule of Hafez al-Assad and the rule of his son Bashar al-Assad, especially the period preceding the outset of the events of 2011, that is the period between 1971 and 2011. Some entries preceding the rule of Hafez al-Assad were included, particularly those related to the post-independence era and the period when the Ba‘ath Party took power, given their significance to the discourse of informality in the country thereafter. Others following the Syrian events of 2011 were only included if they directly relate to earlier entries. ;xNLx;;xNLx;The timeline is developed as a live document where the feedback and suggestions for amendments and additions from Syrian and international experts are highly welcomed.;xNLx;;xNLx;The timeline was prepared as part of a project run by the Arab Reform Initiative, funded by GIZ and conducted by Ahmad Sukkar, Hani Fakhani, and Sawsan Abou Zainedin in 2021.;xNLx;;xNLx;The team sincerely thank all those who were consulted throughout the process of developing this project, especially Dr. Valerie Clerc and Prof. Patrick Wakely.;xNLx;;xNLx;Some dates are approximative.;xNLx;;xNLx;Icons:;xNLx;;xNLx;Last updated: 15 August 2021

1936-06-01 00:00:00

Damascus Masterplan (René Danger Masterplan)

The Plan for Development, Extension, and Embellishment of the city of Damascus was prepared by French townplanner René Danger.

1949-06-01 00:00:00

48/1949 - Civil Law

A significant portion of the Civil Code deals with property law matters.

1952-01-01 00:00:00

111/1952 - Rent Law

The law regulated property lease contracts.

1956-01-01 00:00:00

232/1956 - Eviction Compensation

The law set the compensation to value rate in the case of eviction.

1958-01-01 00:00:00

161/1958 - Land Reform Law

The law placed limitations on the ownership of land.

1960-01-01 00:00:00

44/1960 - Informal Properties

The law defines informal properties and mandates their demolition.

1961-01-01 00:00:00

683/1961 - Public Establishment for Housing (PEH) المؤسسة العامة للإسكان

The PEH was established according to Presidential Decree No. 683 of 1961.

1968-01-01 00:00:00

Damascus Masterplan (Ecochard and Banshoya Masterplan)

Damascus Masterplan was conceived by French archutect Michel Ecochard and Japanese architect Gyoji Banshoya.

1974-01-01 00:00:00

14/1974 - Lands Law / Obligating Vacant-lands Construction

The law aimed at increasing housing supply through imposing penalties on owners of lands that are prepared for construction (connected to infrastructure) and located within the urban areas boundires. The owners are subject to panilites of the land is not constructed to its maximum use within a certain timeframe.

1974-03-01 00:00:00

69/1974 - Cooperative Housing

The law sees the housing cooperatives as an instrument that would contribute to the state housing plan.

Informal Settlement in Syria

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