Consequences of the British Civil Wars

1649-01-30 00:00:00

Charles I executed

Charles I was charged with high treason; tried, found guilty and beheaded. The execution of a King sent shockwaves across Europe.

1649-03-17 00:00:00

The Rump Parliament voted to abolish the Monarchy

The Rump Parliament declared itself "the supreme power in this nation". It had the authority to pass Acts of parliament without the Kings permission. On 17 March 1649, the Rump Parliament voted to abolish the English Monarchy.

1649-05-01 09:12:05

England declared a Commonwealth

In 1649, after the trial and execution of King Charles I, England was declared a Commonwealth. Scotland and Ireland would become part of the Commonwealth in 1652. The commonwealth was a republican government made up of MPs who ruled England, Scotland and Ireland without the presence of a Monarch. The commonwealth period lasted from 1649 to 1660 and ended when Charles II was restored to the throne.

1653-11-01 00:00:00

England became a Protectorate

The Protectorate was the name given to the governemnt that ruled during the Commonwealth period. In 1653, England, Scotland and Ireland became a Protectorate. The Protectorate was led by the Lord Protetcor (first Oliver Cromwell, then his son Richard), who ruled over Engalnd, Scotland and Ireland.

1658-09-03 00:00:00

Death of Oliver Cromwell

Oliver Cromwell died aged 59, on 3 September 1658. It is believed he died from a form of malaria and kidney stone disease. Cromwell named his son Richard as his successor. Oliver Cromwell is buried in Westminster Abbey. Although Oliver Cromwell disliked the power of the monarchy, his funeral effigy (image) depicts Oliver Cromwell dressed like a King, wearing a crown and holding an orb and sceptre.

1658-09-03 11:16:56

Richard Cromwell became Lord Protector

After Oliver Cromwell died, his eldest son Richard was immediately named Lord Protector of England and Ireland. Richard made many enemies as Lord Protector and in May 1659 was forced to abdicate (give up his power) by Parliament.

1660-04-04 11:16:56

Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda

The Declaration of Breda is a document Charles II issued whilst he was in exile in Breda, the Netherlands. In the document, Charles II outlined his terms for the restoration of the monarchy.

1660-05-01 00:00:00

Charles II resotred to the throne

In 1660, two years after the death of Oliver Cromwell, Charles II was invited back to become King. The Commonwealth was abolished, and the monarchy was restored.

1661-04-23 04:38:04

Coronation of King Charles II

King Charles II returned to England when he landed at Dover on 25 May 1660, and would enter London on 29 May 1660. Howver, it was not until his coronation at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661, that he was officailly crowned King.

Consequences of the British Civil Wars

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