British Civil Wars

1625-03-27 19:07:34

Coronation of Charles I

Charles Stuart crowned King Charles I of Great Britain and Ireland.

1625-05-01 00:00:00

Charles I married Henrietta Maria

Aged 24, Charles I married 15 year old Henrietta Maria, who was the daughter of King Henri IV of France and Marie de Medici. Their marriage required special dispensation from the Pope, as Charles was a Protestant, whilst Henrietta was Catholic.

1628-08-23 20:43:43

Assassination of the Duke of Buckingham

George Villiers (the 1st Duke of Buckingham) was the Lord High Admiral of England, a close advisor and a favourite of King Charles, but unpopular with Parliament and the public. Buckingham was at Portsmouth in August 1628, preparing for an expedition to La Rochelle. He was stabbed to death by John Felton, a discontented army officer.

1629-03-10 19:07:34

Charles I closed down Parliament

Charles had been disappointed with Parliament for a long time and when members of Parliament criticised the King’s religious and financial policies, Charles was outraged and dissolved (closed down) Parliament. Thus, began eleven years of government without Parliament, known as ‘Personal Rule.’

1633-10-01 00:00:00

William Laud appointed Archbishop of Canterbury

Charles appointed William Laud as Archbishop of Canterbury. Supported by the King, Laud reintroduced to the English Church many of the ceremonies and church layouts from the Catholic Church. This was unpopular with many of the English people.

1635-10-01 00:00:00

Charles ordered everyone to pay Ship Money

In 1635 King Charles I ordered everyone in the country to pay Ship Money. This was very unpopular as Ship Money was usually only paid by people in coastal towns when there was a fear of foreign invasion. By 1636 it became clear this was not intended to be an emergency tax, but an annual source of income for the King.

1637-07-27 12:23:10

Riots in Edinburgh in response to the New Scottish Prayer Book

In an attempt to implement religious conformity across the three kingdoms, Charles I introduced a new prayer book in Scotland. This was met with anger, and in Edinburgh enraged crowds rioted.

1638-04-23 18:53:49

The Scottish National Covenant

Charles I and Archbishop Laud were attempting to make changes to the Scottish church, by implementing measures that many viewed as Catholic. This led to widespread protests across Scotland. In response the Scots rallied together to sign the National Covenant (agreement) in which they committed to defending Scottish Presbyterianism. Charles saw the Scottish Covenant as an act of rebellion, and it led to the start of the Bishop Wars.

1638-10-23 06:53:49

"The World Turned Upside Down"

"The World Turned Upside Down" is a ballad (song), that was written to protest Parliament's decision to ban Christmas. Parliament believed Christmas should be taken more seriously and disliked that Christmas had become an extravagant event. Christmas remained banned until King Charles II returned to the throne in 1660.

1640-04-13 00:00:00

The Short Parliament opened

In need of money to fight the Scots, Charles I was forced to summon Parliament. Initially, it seemed Parliament may grant the King his money. However, the members of Parliament remained angry with the King, and Charles dissolved Parliament within the month.

British Civil Wars

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