Cultural Bilateral Agreements

Cultural property agreements (CPAs) between the United States and foreign governments are important tools to combat cultural racketeering. Under U.S. and international law, the United States can join CPAs to prevent looted and stolen antiquities and artifacts from entering the American art market, fighting the illicit trade while allowing the legal trade to continue and even thrive.

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1983-01-01 00:00:00

Convention on Cultural Property Implementation Act (CPIA)

In 1972, the United States Senate gave its unanimous advice and consent to the 1970 UNESCO Convention. However, because the Convention did not have a basis in U.S. law, special legislation was required to allow the U.S. to implement it. In 1982, Congress passed the CPIA, and President Ronald Reagan signed it into law in January 1983.

1987-09-11 00:00:00

El Salvador

Restrictions were imposed on the import of pre–Hispanic objects from the Cara Sucia region.

1989-03-14 00:00:00


From March 14, 1989, until May 20, 1996, import restrictions on certain categories of ethnological material were in effect, having been implemented on an emergency basis.

1990-05-07 00:00:00


On May 7, 1990, the United States import restrictions on an emergency basis on certain categories of archaeological materials originating in Peru.

1991-04-15 00:00:00


Imposed import restrictions on Maya archaeological artifacts from the Petén region of Guatemala.

1992-03-12 08:16:12

El Salvador

Emergency restrictions were extended for an additional three-year period.

1993-05-05 01:06:11


Emergency import restrictions were extended for three years.

1993-09-23 00:00:00


On September 23, 1993, the United States imposed import restrictions on an emergency basis on certain categories of archaeological materials originating in Mali.

1994-11-02 00:00:00


Emergency import restrictions were extended.

1995-03-08 00:00:00

El Salvador

On March 8, 1995, the United States and El Salvador entered into a bilateral agreement that enabled the imposition of import restrictions on certain categories of archaeological and ethnological material originating in El Salvador.

Cultural Bilateral Agreements

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