Hum 110 - Fall 2019

Introducing the Humanities: Egyptians, Israelites, and Achaemenids exposes students to key questions and methods in the humanities through studying the interaction of different texts and objects in Pharaonic Egypt, selected books of the Hebrew Bible, and Achaemenid Persian monuments and inscriptions. By exploring these interwoven ancient cultures, we’ll raise questions about power, gender, justice, love, beauty, and divinity that we’ll continue discussing throughout the rest of the course. Archaic Greece and the Rise of the Polis examines the diverse aesthetic, intellectual, and political forms, from epic to history to drama to philosophy to the polis itself, that evolved in Greek city-states from the eighth to the fourth centuries B.C.E.

Background image: The Great Pyramid is the oldest and largest of the three Pyramids of Giza. These Fourth Dynasty (c. 2575 - 2465 BCE) pyramids were erected on a plateau on the west bank of the Nile River near present day Al-Jīzah (Giza) in northern Egypt. The pyramids were built by Pharaohs Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure.

0030 BC-05-15 18:27:45

Roman Period

0051 BC-10-07 04:31:51

Cleopatra VII Philopator

0330 BC-05-16 07:53:53

Persia falls to Alexander the Great

Persia falling to Alexander the Great signals the end of Achaemenid Empire.

0332 BC-04-26 05:34:40

Ptolemac Period

0340 BC-08-25 10:35:15

Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics

Nicomachean Ethics is an Aristotelian exploration of the topic of ethical conduct, and the human capacity for happiness and goodness.

0350 BC-08-01 00:00:00

Book of Esther

0389-04-30 00:02:22

"Roman Emperor Theodosius I issued a series of decrees banning temples, statues, festivals, and all ritual practices of traditional Greek polytheism"

0399 BC-07-30 09:25:40

Socrates on trial for impiety and corruption in Athens

The Trial and Death of Socrates is an account depicting Socrates standing trial after being accused of two charges: impiety, and corrupting the youth. These charges were the legal consequence of “failing to acknowledge the gods that the city acknowledges" and "introducing new deities”, as well as asking politico-philosophic questions of his students. These actions were thought to result in moral corruption, and therefore were punishable by death.

0403 BC-06-11 12:55:31

Plato, Symposium

The Symposium is one of Plato's most influential works. It contains speeches on the subject of love, the Platonic form of beauty, and the basis of reality, and provides a portrait of Socrates.

0411 BC-03-22 01:59:30

Aristophanes, Lysistrata

Lysistrata is a Greek comedy by Aristophanes, and was originally performed in classical Athens. It was written during the final years of the war between Athens and Sparta, and depicts the wives of the warring cities’ attempt at peace. In the story, their method for promoting peace was ceasing romantic relations with their husbands and occupying the Acropolis, which housed the Athenian treasury.

0415 BC-09-12 15:48:51

Athen's expedition to Sicily ends in the destruction of its forces

0424 BC-04-16 21:17:22

Thucydides composes The History of the Peloponnesian War

Thucydides was an Athenian historian and general, whose work The History of the Peloponnesian War recounts the fifth-century BC war between Sparta and Athens. His piece was the first recorded political and moral analysis of a nation’s war policies. The History depicts events that he lived through during his adult life, some of which he took an active part in, and all of which he was a direct or indirect spectator.

0428 BC-11-04 10:06:58

Revolt and capture of Mytilene, which was the occasion of Thucydides’ “Mytilenian Debate”

0430 BC-05-14 22:22:47

The plague hits Athens

0431 BC-03-31 10:19:11

Medea competes in the City Dionysia (takes 3rd place out of 3)

0431 BC-05-15 17:27:15

Peloponnesian War (Athens and allies vs. Sparta and allies)

Round 1 of the Peloponnesian War (approx 431-421) involves Pericles, the Plague, and Mytilene. Round 2 (approx. 421-413) encapsulates Melos and the Sicilian Expedition, and round 3 (413-404) includes the Spartan alliance with Persia, Alicbiades’ rule in Athens, and Athens’ defeat.

0432 BC-02-27 05:43:28

Assembly at Sparta to register complaints against Athens, debate between Corinthians and Athenians

0432 BC-11-06 04:23:13

Assembly at Sparta to register complaints against Athens, debate between Corinthians and Athenians

0437 BC-12-12 00:19:32

Plato, Protagoras

Protagoras depicts a discussion between Socrates and Protagoras regarding the nature of virtue.

0443 BC-06-15 09:05:30

Ascendancy of Pericles, elected yearly as general (strategos) in Athens

0443 BC-07-25 05:55:15

Ascendancy of Pericles, elected yearly as general (strategos) in Athens

0447 BC-07-25 11:45:33

Construction of the Parthenon

The Parthenon was a grand temple to the goddess Athena, the patroness of the city of Athens. The first marble temple was constructed from ca. 490-480 and dismantled when Athens was sacked by the Persians. The building of the Parthenon was part of the Periclean building program for the Acropolis, which took the ancient center and transformed it into a new center of religion with a strong cohesiveness running through all the buildings. The Parthenon was the most striking building on the Acropolis, as it was the largest and one of the most central to Athenian religious life. It was built after the Persians were no longer a threat and glorifies city and people of Athens with its sculptures and design.

0450 BC-08-04 16:15:40

Herodotus composes The Histories, his account of the War between Greece and Persia

Herodotus was the author of the first narrative history produced in the ancient world: the History of the Greco-Persian Wars. He is considered to be the first historian to systematically collect and arrange facts and materials in an attempt to construct an accurate and vivid account of events.

0450 BC-08-10 02:52:39

Emperor Artaxerxes I or Artaxerxes II encourages the restoration of Yehud under guidance of Babylonian Jews, Ezra and Nehemiah

0451 BC-08-25 19:09:18

Periclean family laws instituted

0454 BC-09-08 19:12:26

Treasury of the Delian League moved from Delos to Athens

The transfer of the Delian League treasury to Athens signals the shift from the Delian League to the Athenian Empire.

0458 BC-09-18 13:05:26

Aeschylus, The Oresteia

The Oresteia is a trilogy of tragic plays written by the ancient Greek dramatist Aeschylus. All three stories center around the house of Atreus. These cohesive pieces constitute his last work, and are the only complete trilogy of Greek dramas to survive. Aeschylus won first prize at the festival of Dionysus in Athens for eighteenth and final time with the Oresteia.

0460 BC-10-23 16:02:15

Steps are taken towards "radical democracy" in Athens

Ephialtes gives much of the power of aristocratic Areopagus council to democratic councils (Boule, popular assembly, and popular courts). Other radical democratic reforms include introducing pay for officeholders, reducing property qualifications for holding office, and redefining citizenship. These actions were pursued by Ephialtes’ political ally, Pericles.

0461 BC-09-29 10:55:39

Ephialtes is assassinated

0462 BC-10-09 01:38:10

Laws of Ephialtes give the assembly many powers, including sole responsibility for all public works

Ephialtes’ reforms give Athenians sole jurisdiction over high crimes and oversight of all officials. Pericles introduces pay for jury service, which is considered “radical democracy”.

0472 BC-10-25 05:23:03

Aeschylus wins first prize for The Persians (production financed by Pericles; oldest extant Greek tragedy)

0477 BC-11-16 10:57:08

Establishment of the Delian League

The foundation of the Delian League under Athenian hegemony seeks to secure the freedom of Greeks from Persia and to liberate others.

0479 BC-10-30 17:02:54

Mardonius invades Greece, burns Athens; Greek land victory over the Persians at Plataea

0480 BC-01-05 04:55:23

Persians take the Acropolis

0480 BC-01-24 13:01:07

Xerxes of Persia invades Greece (Second Greco-Persian War)

0480 BC-11-26 04:35:03

Life of Euripides

0480 BC-12-17 06:32:28

Battles at Artemisium and Thermopylae, Greek naval victory over Persia at Salamis; Xerxes retreats

0481 BC-02-09 07:49:04

Greeks establish League against Persia

0486 BC-03-03 09:19:02

Period of Old Comedy in Athens begins

During this time, comedies first became a part of the festival of the Greater Dionysia. Between 486 and 388 BCE, around 600 comedies were produced by Aristophanes and other poets of the era.

0486 BC-03-09 11:02:59

Death of Darius

Darius is succeeded by Xerxes I.

0490 BC-03-28 06:24:55

War Between Greece and Persia

0490 BC-03-29 13:50:05

Classical Athens

0490 BC-04-05 05:32:03

Life of Herodotus

0490 BC-10-01 00:56:45

Athenian victory over Persia at Marathon

0491 BC-04-16 11:16:02

Darius demands submission of Greek states

0499 BC-04-29 02:09:56

Ionian revolt against Persia begins the Greco-Persian War

0500 BC-07-15 22:26:27

Redaction of Exodus/Torah

0500 BC-08-01 00:00:00

Genesis and Exodus

Note that the date is approximate. The composition of the Torah, the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy) is hypothesized as the weaving together of several textual strands: the J-text (Jahwist, ca. 950 BCE, in Judah), the E-text (Elohist, ca. 850, in Israel), the D-text (Deuteronomist, ca. 600, Jerusalem), the P-text (Priestly, ca. 500, in exile in Babylon), all presumably pulled together by a fifth-century Redactor (R).

0500-08-18 07:51:11

Parthenon transformed into a Christian Church dedicated to the Virgin Mary

0508 BC-11-03 06:59:06

Democratic reform of Cleisthenes at Athens

Cleisthenes devises a new political organization that undermines the power of the aristocratic families and leads to the further democratization of Athens.

Hum 110 - Fall 2019

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