How does a country remember? Brazilian post-dictatorial collective memory revisited

1975-01-01 00:00:00

Viana Filho, "O Governo Castelo Branco"

First attempts to construct a historical narrative on the period from the governmental perspective.

1975-06-14 03:23:19

Amnesty Movement

Image: Armazém Memória ( - Widespread request of a broad amnesty that would enable the return of exiled activists.

1976-06-15 13:37:49

Krieger, "Desde as missões"

Governmental attempt to construct a historical narrative on the military period.

1979-08-28 18:44:51

Amnesty Law

The passing of this law allowed the immediate return of exiled activists, and shields (until this day) human rights violators from prosecution.

1979-12-01 14:03:29

Gabeira, "O que é isso, companheiro?"

Conciliatory leftist memory: mythicization of the guerrilla movement, somewhat romanticized perspective.

1979-12-01 14:03:29

Comissão de Familiares de Mortos e Desaparecidos Políticos

Image: - With the organization of the families of the disappeared the drama reaches the public space.

1980-07-01 05:34:00

Sirkis, "Os Carbonários"

Student union perspective, in line with Gabeira's conciliatory memorialisation. Both works were bestsellers in the country.

1983-10-06 03:56:32

Diretas Já!

Image: Arquivo da Agência Brasil ( - Widespread call for elections to be held in Brazil.

1985-01-15 16:50:16

Tancredo Neves - José Sarney

Image: Arquivo da Agência Brasil ( - Tancredo Neves (a civilian) is elected president, in an indirect vote.

1985-04-11 18:19:11

Tortura Nunca Mais

Image: - NGO working on the memory of the the military period. Its focus is on torture and human rights.

1985-06-05 18:19:11

"Brasil: Nunca Mais"

An effort of the Archdiocese of Sao Paulo to document gross misconduct of the military between 1961-1979.

1987-07-10 05:34:00

Gorender, "Combate nas trevas"

2nd wave of leftist memorialisation: academic research on the "democratic resistance," non-neutral in its perspective.

1988-11-04 12:40:32

"Tentativas de Tomada do Poder"

Military effort to counter-argument the publication "Brasil: Nunca Mais." It did not get published at the time.

1991-05-07 15:57:10

Reis Filho, "A revolução faltou ao encontro"

Critical of the left, a 3rd wave of memorialism erupts.

1995-11-22 13:13:45

Comissão Especial sobre Mortos e Desaparecidos

The State recognizes for the first time its responsibility for illegal acts during the dictatorship period.

2001-03-06 18:23:55

Amnesty Commission

This ongoing commission provides reparations to those financially affected by the military dictatorship.

2004-08-12 03:45:39

Upsurge in historical research

In the past 10 years the dictatorship period has become a major area of research in Brazilian historiography.

2012-11-08 23:43:30

Comissão da Verdade

This ongoing commission has a mandate to investigate serious violations of human rights committed between 1946 and 1988.

How does a country remember? Brazilian post-dictatorial collective memory revisited

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