New Media Ecosystems

An Interactive Timeline for Mapping the Communication Environment;xNLx;;xNLx;This digital platform is developed from the resources used in Safak Dikmen’s PhD thesis that focus on communication technologies and internet based television broadcasting. The aim is to educe and map the complicated relationship between advancements in television broadcasting, communication and computer technologies along with the related scientific debates from 1950 until now. Within this frame, a digital timeline was designed including the historical evaluation of the last 70 years of media ecosystem using online and multimedia sources. This new media platform can be defined as a web documentary; all contents are obtained from various sources such as online databases, video and photography sharing platforms and open e-book collection. It should be emphasized that this platform is not entitled as “media ecosystem” but as “new media ecosystem”; since it reveals divers “new” ecosystems formed in their own time according to period’s advancement in technology.;xNLx;Various factors lead the formation of this platform. First, written sources such as PhD thesis, other written documents; book or static graphics with no interaction specificity lack describing this complicated structure. Another trigger for designing this platform is the need for enabling a native language (Turkish) written thesis, naturally structured (restricted) in a specific thesis format into an easily accessible global platform in English. ;xNLx; ;xNLx;Secondly, development of different technologies is merged by diverse and contrasting factors forming a complex system. Mapping this environment through the academic debates of the communication technologies lead the analysis of this structure even more difficult. Therefore, in order to visualise this vast and multilayered progress of the new media ecosystem, a web based open access digital platform is designed. ;xNLx;;xNLx;The last important drive for this platform is the debate of media studies 2.0, initiated in 2007 and lasted for six years with all the proceedings in the following years. David Gauntlett and William Merrin fused this debate as; “In order to understand the latest communication technologies and follow studies in new media; constant update and development of communication studies with new perspectives and research methodologies are required”. Even after ten years from these debates, internet based multimedia platforms as novel mapping of evolving new media ecosystem, especially for studies in academic area, are still not common.;xNLx;;xNLx;I would like to underline the fact that this platform was created as an experimental project. All information regarding the progress and networks could not be included; since all the progress and relations in communication technologies are rapidly evolving in a dynamic environment, yet it could easily be expanded in future. Therefore, major proceedings and important facts were included and highlighted. Please use contact form for all comments, critics and your contributions; as this new media documentary is an ongoing open project.;xNLx;;xNLx;About the Designer;xNLx;;xNLx;Ergin Şafak Dikmen, PhD.;xNLx;;xNLx;Dr. Ergin Şafak Dikmen is instructor in the Faculty of Communication in Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey. Co-founder of the İlef Communication Faculty Video Lab (ilef FA). Worked in divers design company and university research center as a CGI designer, his animation projects was screened in Berlin, İstanbul and Ankara. Being a designer and researcher his main research interests are TV 2.0, Media Ecology, Free Software, CGI and Animation. His most recent research is on Media Archeology and Web TV Platforms.

1930-10-01 00:00:00

BBC - TV Broadcasts

Experimental television broadcasts started

1931-10-01 00:00:00

NBC - TV Broadcasts

Experimental TV broadcasts started

1936-10-01 00:00:00

First High Definition Television

World First Regular High Definition Television Service was inaugurated by BBC

1942-10-01 00:00:00

Harold Innis

"The newspaper in Economic Development" by Harold Innis

1943-10-01 00:00:00

ENIGMA Machine

Developed by German Engenner Arthur Scherbius in 1920’s was highly used in the World War II

1943-10-09 13:55:48

CBS

CBS began experimental color field tests using film

1946-10-01 00:00:00

International Association of Broadcasting (IAB)

In April 1945 when an Uruguayan broadcaster, Mr. Lorenzo Balerio Sicco, addressed all broadcasters of America proposing them to hold a Congress of private broadcasting in one of the countries in the American Continent where freedom of thought did not have any restrictions, aiming at gathering ideas and efforts to make all private broadcasting in America an insuperable means of freedom of expression and mutual knowledge among the peoples.

1948-10-01 00:00:00

American Broadcasting Company

ABC television network made its debut

1950-10-01 00:00:00

European Broadcasting Union (EBU)

The EBU was founded in 1950 by a group of 23 broadcasters to foster programming exchanges and mediate technical disputes that were mostly concerned with frequency and interference issues.

1950-10-01 00:00:00

"Empire and Communication" by Harold Innis

Title: Empire and Communications Author: Innis, Harold Adams (1894-1952) Professor of Political Economy in the University of Toronto Date of first publication: 1950 Oxford at the Clarendon Press, Printed in Great Britain

1951-10-01 00:00:00

"The Bias of Communication" by Harold Innis

Quote: The paper and printing industries supported the development of monopolies of space in nationalism and the state. Printing emphasized vernaculars, reduced the speed of movement of ideas, and divided the European mind. Formerly philosophy directed scientific knowledge but an increase in printed material has compelled science to go now in one direction and now in another. Germany became more isolated from England in part because of the difficulty of its language as compared with that of France.

1954-10-01 00:00:00

“La Technique ou L’enjeu du Siecle” by Jacques Ellul

Translated in English as The Technological Soceity -1964

1955-10-01 00:00:00

Transatlantic Telephone Cable (TAT1)

Quote: “The opening of the first transatlantic telephone cable, TAT-1, on 25 September 1956, marked the beginning of the modern era of cable communications. The cable was a joint venture among the British Post Office, the Canadian Overseas Telecommunications Corporation, and AT&T. The cable itself was made largely by Submarine Cables Ltd. of England (92%), with the balance manufactured by Simplex in the USA. For the two main circuits between Clarenville, Newfoundland and Oban, Scotland (one eastbound, one westbound) flexible repeaters were manufactured by Western Electric in the USA to a design by Bell Laboratories. For the on bound circuit between Clarenville and the North American mainland, rigid repeaters were designed and made by Standard Telephones and Cables (S.T.C.) of England. The cable was laid using the Post Office cable ship Monarch (4). This extract from the company's 75th anniversary book, The Story of S.T.C. 1883-1958, describes STC's contribution to TAT-1, and shows how this led to further projects in the next few years.”

1957-10-01 00:00:00

Sputnik I is Lounged

The Soviet Union launched the first artificial earth Satellite from the spaceport Baikonur Cosmodrome (Kazakhstan).

1957-10-01 00:00:00

Royal Commission on Broadcasting Report is published

1959-10-01 00:00:00

Paul Baran invent the “Packet Switching”

Quote: On Distributing Communications Networks Paul Baran September 1962. “There is an increasingly repeated statement made that one day we will require more capacity for data transmission than needed for voice. If this statement is correct, then it would appear prudent to broaden our planning consideration to include new concepts for future data network directions. Otherwise, we may stumble into being boxed in with the uncomfortable restraints of communications links and switches originally designed for high quality analog transmission . New digital computer techniques using redundancy make cheap unreliable l inks potentially usable . Some sort of a Switched network compatible with these links appears appropriate t o meet t his new upcoming demand for digital service .” (pp. 39-40)

1960-10-01 00:00:00

TV and Education Debate

Gaston Berger (French Philosoph) First debate on the possible use of satellites in education by the French philosopher Gaston Berger in UNESCO General Conference of 1960.

1960-10-01 00:00:00

Marshall McLuhan on TV

CBC TV - Explorations (Program) Credits: Medium: Television Program: Explorations Episode: Teenager Broadcast Date: May 18, 1960 Hosts: Alan Millar, John O'Leary Guest(s): Marshall McLuhan

1962-10-01 00:00:00

“Center for Culture and Technology"

Marshall McLuhan Found the “Center for Culture and Technology in Toronto.

1962-10-01 00:00:00

Telstar 1

First image and sound transmission between North America and Europe using the Telstar 1 Satellite

1962-10-01 00:00:00

IBM - Saturn guidance computer

IThe Saturn computer and data adapter, which were designed and manufactured by IBM's Electronics Systems Center in Owego, N.Y., were part of the launch vehicle's guidance system. They were located one over the other and were connected by wire harness in the instrument unit.

1962-10-01 00:00:00

The Gutenberg Galaxy by Marshall McLuhan

The new electronic interdependence recreates the world in the image of a global village.

1964-10-01 00:00:00

Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union is founded (ABU)

Established in 1964 as a non-profit, non-government, professional association to assist the development of broadcasting in the region, the ABU promotes the collective interests of television and radio broadcasters and encourages regional and international co-operation between broadcasters.

1964-10-01 00:00:00

Television Technology and Cultural Form by Raymond Williams

Critics of McLuhan Media Theory

1964-10-01 00:00:00

International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO)

Previously known by the acronym, "INTELSAT," resulted from the efforts of a group of nations to join the United States in 1964 to establish a global communications satellite system. The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization is an intergovernmental treaty organization that incorporates the principle set forth in Resolution 1721 (XVI) of the General Assembly of the United Nations that establishes that communication by means of satellites should be available to the nations of the world as soon as practicable on a global and non-discriminatory basis.

1964-10-01 00:00:00

“Understanding Media" by Marshall McLuhan

The Extension of Man

1964-10-01 00:00:00

IBM System/360

One year after the flight of the Mercury astronauts IBM introduces IBM System/360 a new concept in computers which creates a "family" of small to large computers incorporating IBM-designed Solid Logic Technology (SLT) microelectronics and uses the same programming instructions. The concept of a compatible "family" of computers transforms the industry.

1965-04-01 06:11:12

McLuhan on TV

CBC TV Take 30

1965-04-06 00:00:00

Intelsat I launched

Live Via Satellite Begin.

1965-10-01 00:00:00

First Intercontinental Classroom

First intercontinental lecture is made on the 31 May 1965 between West Bend High School (Wisconsin) and Lycée Henri IV (Paris) via the Early Bird (INTELSAT) communication satellite

1965-10-01 00:00:00

UNESCO Report

“The Use of space Communication: International Cooperation and International Control"

1965-12-01 00:00:00

UNESCO Report

Meeting of Experts on the Use of Space Communication by the Mass media

1966-04-12 13:33:16

UNESCO Report - Space Communication debate

Quote: “The conquest of outer space must be put to peaceful ends and that it is already possible to discern how artificial satellites or machines positioned nearer to the earth could enable educational programs covering vast areas to be disseminated.”(p.18)

1966-05-08 00:00:00

Marshall McLuhan on TV

CBC TV This Hour has Seven Days

1967-10-01 00:00:00

The medium is the massage: An Inventory of Effects by Marshall McLuhan and Quentin Fiore

“All media are extensions of some human faculty— psychic or physical.”

1967-10-01 00:00:00

Mcluhan on TV

CBC TV Our World

1968-10-01 00:00:00

UNESCO Report

Communication in the space age - The use of satellites by the mass media.

1968-10-01 00:00:00

Use of the term Media Ecology for the first time

by Neil Postman in the National Council of Teachers of English

1968-10-01 00:00:00

Marshall McLuhan on TV

CBC TV The Summer Way

1969-12-28 16:28:02

Establishment of ARPANET

1969-12-28 16:28:02

Arab States Broadcasting Union (ASBU) is founded.

1969-12-28 16:28:02

Tom Nairn

Critics of McLuhan Media Theory

1969-12-28 16:28:02

Moon Landing

The Apollo 11 astronauts make the first human landing on the Moon

1971-09-28 09:29:40

Media Ecology PhD program

New York University - Founded by Terence T. Morgan and Christine Nystrom.

1971-10-01 00:00:00

Foundation of Organization of Iberoamerican Television (OIT)

Organisation of television networks between Latin America, Spain and Portugal.

1972-10-01 00:00:00

North American Broadcasting Association (NABA)

Founded in 1972 and headquartered in Toronto, Canada, NABA is a non-profit association of broadcasting organizations in Canada, United States and Mexico committed to advancing the interests of broadcasters locally and internationally.

1972-10-01 00:00:00

Timeshared, Interactive, Computer-Controlled Information Television (TICCIT)

Designed by the Mitre Conpany.

1974-10-01 00:00:00

UNESCO Report

“Television traffic - a one-way street ?” Survey by Kaarle Nordenstreng and Tapio Varis.

1975-10-01 00:00:00

“Harold Innis as Political Theorist

by William Christian

1976-10-01 00:00:00

Apple Computer

is formed by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayner.

New Media Ecosystems

Launch
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