History of Educational Technology

This timeline outlines the history of educational technology.

Timeline created by Jessica Levene for EME 5054, Fall 2012. Assignment 2.2;xNLx;EdD Cohort 3 at the University of Florida

0399 BC-01-01 00:00:00

Inquiry & The Socratic Method

Through the use of questioning, Socrates (and his students Plato and Zenophon) guide the learner to their inborn knowledge. AVID, a national program for college readiness, still emphasizes the Socratic Method as an integral part of the curriculum as students work in small groups with a tutor to use questioning to guide their peers to solve their homework questions.

1774-01-01 00:00:00

Learning Sequence & Object-Teaching

Focusing on the natural growth of the mind, Pestalozzian principles emphasized breaking content down into developmentally appropriate sequences with a teacher-centered approach. The Pestalozzian method used objects to teach simple, concrete ideas which would build up to teaching abstract ideas. For example, learners would count five physical blocks which lead to learning the number “5.” By 1860, modified Pestalozzian methods were reflected in Oswego, New York, where Edward Sheldon introduced object-teaching, which deemphasized the use of textual material for learning and emphasized the use of nature, diagrams, and museums.

1806-01-01 00:00:00

Affordable Education

A recurring issue throughout the history of education prior to the monitorial, free public school model was that social status often indicated whether individuals had access to education. In New York City, the Lancasterian Monitorial Method is implemented as an affordable option for education. Using a method similar to a train-the-trainer method, one teacher taught monitors, who then taught a small group of students by repeating rote knowledge and practice problems until the problems could be completed with ease. Using instructional media as a tool for instruction, learners would listen as the monitor showed an example and then use their slates to copy the process. The slates could be cleared and reused. The Lancasterian Monitorial period is included in this timeline for two primary reasons: 1) this model served as a catalyst for free public schools with an emphasis on sequential, systematic teaching methods with classroom management, and 2) this model included examples of instructional media and design that are still prevalent today. The slates that were used are examples of instructional media being used to supplement instructional methods.

1852-03-16 06:54:34

Distance Education

Although distance learning's most common connotation pertains to online learning, the stenograph and post office opened up opportunities to develop correspondence courses. By 1892, the University of Chicago used the mail system to submit assignments.

1867-01-01 00:00:00

Object Teaching: Quincy Methods

Although the teacher was still considered the sole source of knowledge, a variation of object-teaching was employed in Quincy, Massachusetts where students learned through sensory active processes (learning by doing), by using everyday objects to learn about abstract science principles.

1889-04-14 22:34:13

Method of Apperception

Herbart’s framework identified levels of learning, which included first sensory activity, next reproduction of already existing ideas, and finally, assimilating the new concept with the old concept. This was a teacher-centered approach where the teacher has prepared questions and answers that they used to impart knowledge.

1910-07-03 15:10:24

Visual Instruction

The motion picture projector is an instructional media device used in schools to incorporate films, slides, and photographs for use in instruction. Institutions that trained teachers on how to use visual instruction were formed as school districts adopted motion pictures and slides into their classrooms. This is a relevant event to include because it reflects similar practices today: when new technology/instructional media is introduced, teachers must receive training on how to leverage the use of technology.

1939-12-05 05:23:37

Audiovisual Instruction & WWII

The need for mass instruction (training) for the military and the advent of audiovisual technology resulted in an impact on educational technology. Over 400 training films were created between 1943-1945 and this instructional media became a key training tool for the military during World War II. The instructional audiovisual media precipitated interest in researching systematic design of training by creating task analysis and methods of evaluation.

1950-11-21 07:24:45

Instructional TV & Programmed Instruction

Joint efforts between the Federal Communications Commision and funding from Ford Foundation sparked an increase in using television to deliver instruction. Unfortunately, the educational channels used didactic, teacher-centered broadcasting of teachers lecturing. Programmed instructional materials could increase self-paced learning through sequential content presentation, questioning techniques, and immediate feedback. In 1954, B.F. Skinner began developing a systematic approach to evaluate and revise instructional materials/media. Through the evaluation process, instructional materials were revised according to effectiveness. This process of analyzing and systematically designing instruction resulted in the foundation of today’s instructional design process.

1965-04-23 03:42:06

The Conditions of Learning by Robert Gagne

Gagne’s publication outlined five domains of learning outcomes and nine events of instruction. This model serves as a foundation to instructional design in educational technology because Gagne’s model emphasizes careful analysis of content and task analysis and is still frequently used when designing instruction.

1981-09-27 00:00:00

IBM Introduces PC

IBM releases the first Personal Computer. As computers become more affordable, computers impact educational technology because the devices become integrated into various learning environments due to their educational software features and access to the Internet.

1982-02-10 05:27:48

Satellite TV Systems

Providing a cost-effective method of training, satellites allows corporations and the military to transmit training programs to various locations. Cost for travel and extra employees to train was reduced. By 1985, the National Technological University offered course materials by satellite video and students would completed essays about the content learned.

1989-04-23 03:42:06

Welcome to the World Wide Web

Tim Berners-Lee developed the World Wide Web and the Mosaic Web browser, which lead to the graphic and text-rich world of the Internet. Initially, contribution to the Web was limited to individuals who could use HTML code. The creation of the Internet foreshadowed the drastic changes in education.

1990-01-01 00:00:00

Student Response Systems

Feedback and questioning strategies trace back as far as the Socratic Method; however, it was in the 1900s that wireless response systems (clickers) were used to receive feedback to questions in an educational setting. Currently, many schools districts have implemented clickers, such as eInstruction CPS. These systems allow all students the opportunity to send responses (multiple choice or short answer) to a system that aggregates data so that teachers can monitor progress learners' mastery of concepts throughout instruction. Clickers are an important piece of educational technology history because they provide a way to engage students in traditional, didactic settings through questioning and feedback.

1995-10-14 06:31:13

Ward Cunnigham: The First Wiki Site

Looking for an easy way to collaboratively publish a website, the first wiki was created in 1995. Since then, wiki websites have impacted educational technology because the Internet can be integrated into learning for more than consumption of information. With wikis and blogs, learners can collaborate and contribute to the information-rich world.

1998-09-27 00:00:00

ISTE Establishes NETS

International Society for Technology Education (ISTE) recognizes the influences technology has on education and develops National Education Technology Standards (NETS) for students, teachers, and administrators. These standards outline skills, such as digital citizenship, creativity, collaboration, that are needed in today's technology-rich society. These standards, which are continually updated and revised, provide a framework for relevant integration of technology in learning environments.

2005-04-03 15:05:54

Learning Management Systems (LMS)

Learning Management Systems, for example the merging of WebCT and BlackBoard Inc. in 2005, provide an enterprise platform used by school districts and higher education to deliver blended and fully online courses. LMS platforms provide interactive software and online tools, such as discussion boards and dropboxes, to support instructional methods.

2007-01-30 04:57:11

Participatory Journalism

In 2007, "USA Today" allows readers to post comments and question on their online newspaper. Allowing readers worldwide to comment and participate in news has a major impact on society and educational technology because reading and discussion becomes more than a process limited to a small audience within the walls of the classroom.

2007-09-27 00:00:00

Flip Cameras

Flip video camera is introduced as an affordable digital camcorder. Videos impact educational technology because students can create videos as performance assessments. A teacher-centered approach gaining momentum in 2012 is the "Flipped Classroom." (See "Khan Academy" event in timeline for more information)

2008-09-27 00:00:00

Khan Academy

An online repository of over 3,00 instructional videos on YouTube, Khan Academy has impacted educational technology because content/courseware is open-sourcce and available to anyone. Although videos are not new to the world of ed tech, Khan's repository has brought attention to the value of creating videos. This served as a springboard for teachers to "Flip" their classroom, where students study the videos and direct instruction at home so that their class time is spent on critical thinking activities. Khan is a springboard for allowing students to create instructional videos, thus creating a student-centered approach to learning.

2008-10-14 11:37:13

Edmodo: Safe Social Networking in Schools

As social networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook infiltrate society's daily life, Nic Borg and Jeff O'Hara develop a safe, secure social networking platform for schools. Edmodo is an example of how teachers in traditional classrooms can integrate anytime, anywhere learning to promote collaboration in a secure environment that mimics Facebook.

2010-04-03 15:05:54

Introducing the 21st Century Tablet

Apple announces the iPad; a personal tablet with features including ePubs (eBooks), apps, and access to the Internet. Since the original iPad, Apple has impacted the field of educational technology by opening up iTunesU and iBook Author, which curates current content and allows easy creation of interactive books and content.

History of Educational Technology

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