The Pequot War Era

The Pequot War (1636-1637) was fought in Southern New England between the English Allied and Pequot Allied forces. The Pequot War was the first major conflict between Native Americans and English in northeastern North America. It lasted eleven long months, involved thousands of Native and European combatants, and several major battles were fought in present-day Connecticut, Rhode Island, and New York. This timeline includes some of the most critical events of the Pequot War Era. The Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center’s “Battlefields of the Pequot War” project began in 2007, the purpose of which is to research, document, and ultimately protect surviving battlefield associated with the Pequot War of 1636-1637. The Battlefields of the Pequot War project also serves as an educational outlet where students, academics, museum visitors, landowners, and the general public can participate in promoting historical knowledge and historical preservation. For more information visit www.pequotmuseum.org and www.pequotwar.org !

1624-01-01 00:00:00

Dutch Maintain Exclusive Trade with the Pequot

The Dutch in New Netherlands Colony become close trading partners with the Pequot and their tributaries. The Dutch and Pequot had maintained an exclusive trading relationship in which they exchanged European goods (trade cloth, metal tools, firearms) for wampum and furs.

1630-07-03 00:00:00

The Pequot Expand Throughout Southern New England

The Pequot expand their political and military influence throughout Long Island Sound. Numerous Native groups in Southern New England and Long Island become tributary to the Pequot. This included the Mohegan, Podunk, Poquonnock, Tunxis, Quinnipiac.

1633-07-01 00:00:00

Dutch Purchase Land for House of Hope Trading Post from Pequot

The Dutch negotiate a treaty to settle on the Connecticut River with the Pequot. Dutch construct the Huys de Hoop (Fort Hope) fortified trading post at Suckiaug just south of the Farmington River.

1633-09-26 00:00:00

English Bypass Fort Good Hope and establish Windsor

English bypass Dutch at Good Hope and establish a fortified trading post at Windsor at the mouth of the Farmington River.

1633-12-01 00:00:00

Dutch-Pequot War

Dutch - Pequot War is fought in the Connecticut River Valley. Pequot and Narragansett battle periodically during this time.

1634-01-01 00:00:00

Death of Captain Stone on CT River

Captain John Stone, Captain Norton, and several crew members were killed by Natives. It was later said that the killers were tributaries of the Pequot and at least one attacker was the son of the slain Pequot Sachem Tatobam.

1634-02-01 00:00:00

Small Pox Epidemic

Small Pox Epidemic spreads through upper New England and effects the Narragansett and possibly the Pequot.

1634-03-01 00:00:00

English Settle Wethersfield

English establish a settlement at Wethersfield (south of the Dutch) on the Connecticut River.

1634-10-23 03:57:52

Pequots Seek Diplomatic Solution

Pequot envoys sent to Boston to open diplomatic relations with the English. Pequot seek friendship and trade alliance. The English asked for more senior negotiators.

1634-12-12 03:57:52

Pequots Seek Diplomatic Solution a Second Time

Pequot Ambassadors return to Boston to discuss an alliance. The English agreed to peace if: 1) The Pequot delivered the killers of Captain John Stone. 2) The Pequot surrendered their right to the Connecticut River. The Pequot gave gifts of wampum, beaver, and otter in return for the English negotiating a peace with the Narragansett.

1635-10-06 10:28:28

Winthrop, Jr. Obtains CT Gov. Commission

John Winthrop, Jr. receives a commission from the Saybrook Company to be Governor of Connecticut.

1635-11-03 00:00:00

Work Continues on Saybrook Fort

Workmen sent by Winthrop, Jr. continue to clear land and build basic structures. Lieutenant Lion Gardiner took over engineering of the fort in March 1636 and completed fortifications around May.

1635-11-03 00:00:00

Construction of Saybrook Fort

The English from the Saybrook Company take possession of the mouth of the Connecticut River at Pasbeshauke. Soon after construction of Saybrook Fort begins.

1636-04-01 00:00:00

Winthrop Jr, Arrives at Saybrook Point

John Winthrop, Jr. and Lt. Lion Gardiner arrive at Saybrook Point to oversee the settlement. Gardiner remains to oversee the forts construction.

1636-06-01 00:00:00

Gifts Returned to Pequot

Massachusetts Bay officials return gifts given by the Pequot in the Winter of 1634.

1636-06-01 00:00:00

Windsor Builds Warehouses Near Saybrook

Warehouses are built by individuals from the Connecticut River towns at Warehouse Point, just north of Saybrook Fort.

1636-06-12 00:00:00

Establishment of Hartford

The English under Reverend Thomas Hooker establish Hartford (originally named Newtown) within sight of the Dutch fort.

1636-06-18 00:00:00

Uncas Spreads word of Pequot Plots

Mohegan Sachem Uncas sends intelligence, or rumors, of an aborted Pequot attack on a Plimoth vessel. Uncas also blames the death of a shipwrecked Englishmen on Long Island, on the Pequot.

1636-07-20 00:00:00

Captain John Oldham Murdered

Captain John Oldham of Wethersfield is killed by Block Island inhabitants. The murder is discovered by Captain John Gallop

1636-08-20 00:00:00

Massachusetts Bay Launches Expedition

Massachusetts Bay launches a punitive expedition against the inhabitants of Block island. The attack fore led by Captain John Endicott consisted of ninety men, four officers, and two Natives. August 25 - 26 was spent invading and ranging Block Island. Endicott's force sailed to Saybrook Fort and remained anchored there between August 26-29. On August 29 a small group of soldiers commanded by Captain Endicott and Underhill sailed to confront the Pequot sachem Sassacus at the Pequot River, but he was on Long Island. After several hours of failed negotiations English forces attacked and destroyed villages on both sides on the river. This act sparked the Pequot War.

1636-08-29 00:00:00

Siege and Battle of Saybrook Fort Begins

Pequot attack Saybrook garrison stationed at Cornfield Point. Three English wounded, one escaped and captured.

1636-08-29 00:00:00

Pequot War Begins

The Pequot War (1636-1637) began immediately after Massachusetts Bay attacked the villages on the Pequot (Thames) River.

1636-09-01 00:00:00

Pequot Fail to Ally with Narragansett

Pequot unsuccessfully attempt to enter an alliance with the Narragansett.

1636-10-01 00:00:00

Pequot Attack 6 Mile Island

English are attacked while gathering hay near Six Mile Island. Two English are wounded, one is captured and killed.

1636-10-21 00:00:00

Peace Between English and Narragansett

The English and Narragansett enter a formal peace treaty and alliance.

1636-10-24 00:00:00

Pequot and Western Niantic As One

Pequot and Western Niantic resolve to fight as one against English forces.

1637-02-22 00:00:00

Pequot Ambush Lt. Gardiner

Pequot ambush Lt. Gardiner and nine soldiers on Saybrook Neck. Three English soldiers were killed, three others were wounded, and two others deserted. Surviving English forces fought their way back to the protection of Saybrook Fort.

1637-03-09 00:00:00

Pequot Ambush Saybrook Neck

Pequot advance on Saybrook Fort and Parlet with Lt. Gardiner. Several hundred Pequot approach Saybrook Fort. Gardiner and Thomas Stanton speak with Pequot emissaries. After the meeting the fort's cannon fire in the direction of the Pequot but no combat occurs.

1637-03-11 20:45:11

Captain John Mason is Sent to Saybrook Fort

The Connecticut River towns send Captain John Mason and six men to reinforce Saybrook Fort.

1637-04-01 20:45:11

Captain John Underhill Sent to Saybrook Fort

Massachusetts Bay send Captain John Underhill and twenty soldiers to reinforce Saybrook Fort.

1637-04-17 20:45:11

Massachusetts Pressures Others to Fight Against Pequot

Massachusetts Bay officials pressure Plimoth Colony to join the war against the Pequot. The Plimoth Colony resists.

1637-04-23 20:45:11

Pequot Attack Wethersfield

The Pequot attack Wethersfield. Nine English settlers are killed in the Great Meadow while at work. Two girls are taken captive.

1637-04-25 20:45:11

Shots Fired at Pequot Canoes

Lt. Gardiner orders the fort's cannon to fire on pequot war canoes passing before the fort. The nose of the canoe carrying the captured girls is hit by the shot but everyone onboard survives.

1637-05-01 20:45:11

"Offensive War" Against the Pequot

Connecticut orders "Offensive War" against the Pequot. The court at Hartford orders that 90 men be raised from the three Connecticut River towns for a campaign against the Pequot. The towns mobilize and the English garner support from the Connecticut River Indian groups along with Uncas and his Mohegan followers.

1637-05-01 20:45:11

Roger William Provides Map

Roger Williams provides a map of Pequot country to Governor Vane of Massachusetts Bay based on Narragansett intelligence.

1637-05-10 20:45:11

Mistick Campaign Begins

English Allied forces leave Hartford for Saybrook Fort. The three ships become wind bound and much of the Native allies disembark and march south to the fort.

1637-05-12 20:45:11

Again Massachusetts Bay Seeks Help From Plimoth Colony

Massachusetts Bay Colony seeks military assistance from Plimoth Colony in the war against the Pequot.

1637-05-13 09:44:23

Narragansett Share Information about the Pequots

Narragansett send reports of Pequots fishing and planting around Long Island Sound. Miantaonomi marches to Boston and offers a plan of attack with would combine English sea power with Narragansett warriors in order to attack the Pequot along different points on the sound.

1637-05-14 09:44:23

English-Allied Indians under Uncas attack Pequot Warriors

English native allies under Uncas arrive at Saybrook Fort. Lt. Gardiner not trusting the Natives orders them to prove their loyalty by attacking a company of Pequot located on the eastern side of the Connecticut River. The English Allies Native force attacks the Pequot the next day killing five and capturing Kiswas, a Pequot who has once lived at the fort prior to the war. One English-allies Suckiaung Indian was wounded in the fighting.

1637-05-17 09:44:23

Massachusetts Bay Prepares Army

Massachusetts Bay prepares an army for the war against the Pequot.

1637-05-18 09:44:23

English Allied Forces Sail for Narragansett Bay

English Allied Forces set sail from Saybrook Fort for Narragansett Bay. They remain in sight of shore to deceive the Pequot into believing that they are leaving. The English ships arrive at Narragansett Bay Saturday evening. Captain Mason and a small group meet with Narragansett Sachem Canonicous.

1637-05-22 09:44:23

March to Miantonomi's Village

English Allied forces march to an Eastern Niantic fort near the Pequot frontier. English forces surround the fort so word of their presence does not reach the Pequot. Massachusetts Bay reinforcements under Captain Patrick arrived at Providence too late to join Mason's men. Miantonomi and around 300 Narragansett forces meet Captain Mason to join the campaign.

1637-05-25 09:44:23

Porter's Rock

English Allied forces cross the Pawcatuck River and march to the head of the Mystic River where they encamped at a prominent rock feature known as “Porter’s Rocks.” The combined English Allied force now consisted of 77 English, around 100 Mohegans and River Indians, and around 300 Narragansett and Niantics.

1637-05-26 09:44:23

The Battle of Mistick Fort

At dawn English Allied forces surround the Pequot fortified village at Mistick. English soldiers form the surround the fort while Native allies form a second line beyond them. Two companies commanded by Captain Mason and Captain Underhill split off to storm both entrances. Mason’s company of 22 men is the first to enter through an northeast entrance. After catching the Pequot off guard the approximately 150 warriors inside the fort organize an effective defense. His company suffers nearly 50% casualties in approximately 15-20 minutes of combat. As a result, Mason orders his men to set fire to the fort’s weetu’s. He then orders his men to evacuate. Underhill’s company having a long distance to traverse arrives at the southwest entrance and storms the fort to find it already on fire. As the majority of Pequot warriors were now concentrated to the southern half of the fort Underhill’s entrance was highly contested and his company of also suffered nearly 50% casualties in around 10 minutes or less. Underhill also orders his men to set fire to the weetu’s within the fort and evacuates his men to the outside. English forces concentrate towards the southwest entrance while high winds drive the fire in that direction as well. Pequot warriors fought from within the forts palisade wall until the fire was too intense and then made one last desperate charge followed by non-combatants. English forces indiscriminately killed all fleeing Natives and accidently wounded allied Natives as well. Over a dozen fleeing Pequot were captured by English Allied Native forces. When the battle was over the English suffered two dead and twenty wounded while their Native allies had taken and undetermined amount of casualties. With the exception of the few captured Pequot the defenders and inhabitants of the fort had died during the assault. English Allied forces hold Pequot Hill for several hours and fight off three separate Pequot counterattacks until they see their ships in Long Island Sound. Mason gives the order to march west to rendezvous with the ships at Pequot (Thames) Harbor. As they prepare to march the main body of Pequot Warriors arrive from the primary fortified village at Wienshauks, some 300-400 strong. For the rest of the day Pequot forces launch a series of coordinated ambushes, counterattacks, and feints in an attempt to destroy the English Allied forces. After four miles of combat the fighting ceased and the English Allies were able to successfully reach their ship. It is unclear how many casualties they suffered in the march but it appears that the Pequot lost another 100 to 200 fighting men killed and wounded in the battle.

1637-05-27 09:44:23

Mistick Fort Campaign Ends

English Allied Forces march west through Western Niantic lands on their way to the Connecticut River. They arrive there that evening and are ferried across the river to Saybrook Fort the next day.

1637-05-30 09:44:23

Wyandanch visits Saybrook Fort

Long Island Sachem Wyandanch visits Saybrook Fort Knows of the destruction of Mistick Fort. Negotiates with Lt. Gardiner and loosely allies with the English.

1637-06-01 09:44:23

Pequot Council Meets

equot leadership agrees to vacate their homeland. Sassacus and around eight followers go west toward the Hudson River. One hundred leave for Long Island. Around seventy surrender to the Narragansett. An unknown number of warriors went north to join with allied Nipmuc groups.

1637-06-07 09:44:23

Plimoth Colony Declares War on Pequots

Plimoth Colony declares war on the Pequot and recruit a fifty-man company.

1637-06-18 09:44:23

Skirmish at Six Mile Island

Three English killed and their shallop destroyed by Pequot forces around Six Mile Island. One body floated down river and was recovered at Saybrook Fort. The other two were found hanging from trees near the shoreline at the site of the attack.

1637-06-19 09:44:23

Captain Daniel Patrick Intercepts Pequot Supply Lines

Massachusetts Bay Captain Daniel Patrick, stationed at Saybrook Fort, captured two canoes of a number of canoes which the Pequot floated up the Connecticut River with goods needed during their western march to the Hudson River.

The Pequot War Era

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