UNSC Resolution 2046 Compliance Tracker

By Mollie Zapata and Jenn Christian

On May 2, the United Nations Security Council enacted a resolution addressing recent violence that has flared along the poorly defined international border separating Sudan and South Sudan, as well as the nearly year-long conflict between Sudanese government forces and the Sudan Revolutionary Front, or SRF. It was an important move, and a significant one given the political gridlock the Security Council often faces when considering issues related to the two Sudans.;xNLx;;xNLx;But the value of the Security Council’s action will hinge on compliance and consequences, and in the two weeks since the resolution was adopted, the parties have traded accusations of ongoing violations.;xNLx;;xNLx;In an effort to track Sudan, South Sudan, and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North's, or SPLM-N's, compliance with those conditions on which the resolution places corresponding deadlines, the Enough Project has produced a new timeline. The timeline identifies the deadlines for conditions provided for in Resolution 2046 and chronicles indicators of actors’ compliance, or lack thereof, with each of those conditions in color-coded categories along the timeline (below).;xNLx;;xNLx;U.N. Security Council Resolution 2046 requires the governments of Sudan and South Sudan, as well as the SPLM-N, to meet a number of conditions or face the imposition of sanctions under Article 41 of the U.N. Charter. The resolution places deadlines on the actors’ compliance with certain conditions, while leaving other conditions without corresponding deadlines.;xNLx;;xNLx;;xNLx;;xNLx;Acronym Guide:;xNLx;•GoS – Government of Sudan;xNLx;•RoSS – Republic of South Sudan;xNLx;•SRF – Sudan Revolutionary Front (a coalition between the rebel groups in Darfur, South Kordofan and Blue Nile);xNLx;•SAF – Sudan Armed Forces (the Sudanese Army);xNLx;•SPLM-N – Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North;xNLx;•UNSC – United Nations Security Council;xNLx;•AU – African Union;xNLx;•NCP – National Congress Party (the ruling political party in Sudan);xNLx;•JPSM - Joint Political and Security Mechanism;xNLx;•AJOC - Abyei Joint Oversight Committee;xNLx;•JBVMM - Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mission;xNLx;;xNLx;

2012-05-04 00:00:00

Deadline: cessation of hostilities

Immediate cessation of hostilities between Sudan and South Sudan within 48 hours of the resolutions’ adoption.

2012-05-04 00:00:00

Bombing in Unity state

South Sudan accuses SAF forces of bombing Panakuach, Unity state, South Sudan.

2012-05-04 00:00:00

South Sudan redeploys police force

Dr. Luka Biong Deng, South Sudanese Co-Chair of the Abyei Joint Oversight Committee, or AJOC, travels to Abyei town to meet with senior members of UNISFA and brief them on South Sudan’s decision to redeploy South Sudanese police forces outside of the Abyei area.

2012-05-05 12:00:00

Bombing in Unity state

South Sudan accuses SAF forces of bombing Panakuach, Unity state, South Sudan.

2012-05-05 12:00:00

SAF denies accusations

Al-Saarmi Khalid, SAF spokesman, denies Southern accusations of SAF bombing in Unity state, South Sudan.

2012-05-06 00:00:00

Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism

Head of Mission for UNISFA travels to Khartoum and Juba to consult with SPLA and SAF high commands on ways of addressing the security situation along the border and on the startup of the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mechanism, or JBVMM.

2012-05-07 00:00:00

SAF Accused of Bombings

South Sudan accuses SAF forces of bombing areas in the South Sudanese states of Upper Nile, Unity, and Northern Bahr el Ghazal.

2012-05-08 00:00:00

SAF Accused of Bombings

South Sudan accuses SAF forces of bombing areas in the South Sudanese states of Upper Nile, Unity, and Northern Bahr el Ghazal.

2012-05-09 00:00:00

Deadline: Border Security

Activation of border security mechanism within no more than a week

2012-05-10 00:00:00

President bashir vows...

“In the coming negotiations, if we don’t solve the security problems ... there will be no talk over any other clause - not oil, not trade, not citizenship, not Abyei, or any other file.”

2012-05-10 00:00:00

South Sudan Ready for negotiations

South Sudan Minister of Cabinet Affairs Deng Alor states, "We [South Sudan] are ready to go for negotiations any time.” Alor went onto to say that South Sudan is “committed to negotiations and discussing everything.”

2012-05-10 12:00:00

President Bashir states...

"The clauses we want to implement, we will implement. And what we don’t want to implement, we won’t. Neither the Security Council, nor the [AU] Peace and Security Council, nor the whole world will make us implement it."

2012-05-11 12:00:00

SAF accused of 7 bombings

South Sudan accuses SAF forces of bombing and shelling seven areas on the southern side of the border.

2012-05-11 12:00:00

U.N. Confirmation

The U.N. confirms that South Sudan has redeployed its police forces outside the Abyei area.

2012-05-12 00:00:00

A.U. Commends South Sudan

The A.U. commends South Sudan for withdrawing its police forces from the Abyei area and urges Khartoum to immediately do the same.

2012-05-13 00:00:00

Sudan demands joint administrative structure

Sudanese Minister of Foreign Affairs Ali Karti conditions Sudan’s redeployment of SAF from Abyei on the creation of a joint administrative structure in the area, per a previous agreement with South Sudan.

2012-05-14 00:00:00

NCP Committee

The National Congress Party, or NCP, forms a committee to review UNSC Resolution 2046.

2012-05-16 00:00:00

Deadline: Troop Redeployment out of Abyei

Redeployment of troops from Abyei within no more than two weeks in accordance with the June Agreement on Temporary Arrangements for the Abyei Area.

2012-05-16 00:00:00

DEADLINE: Negotiations

Unconditional resumption of negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan within no more than two weeks.

2012-05-17 00:00:00

DEADLINE: Report Back to UNSC

UN Secretary-General reports to the UNSC about GoS, RoSS, and SPLM-N compliance within 15 days.

2012-05-19 00:00:00

AUHIP head Meets with Bashir

President Mbeki, head of the AUHIP, meets with President Bashir in Khartoum and sees little change in Sudan’s reluctance to start negotiations. Sudan insists that security issues must be dealt with first before accepting negotiations on other issues.

2012-05-19 00:00:00

South Sudan Calls For Sanctions

In response to Sudan’s delay tactics, South Sudan’s chief negotiatior Pagan Amum calls for sanctioning Khartoum for its violation of the UNSC timeline, saying Khartoum routinely defies the international community. “The U.N. sees it as normal for Bashir to bomb and kill the people of South Sudan. The conscience of the international community is not pricked…they are used to it, it has become normal,” said Pagan.

2012-05-19 00:00:00

Sudan discounts 2046

Sudanese Presidential assistant, Nafie Ali Nafie, says that resumption of talks with South Sudan does not indicate compliance with UNSC resolution 2046. He shrugged off the recent decisions of the U.N. and the A.U., saying at a graduation ceremony for the Popular Defense Forces, or PDF, “Sudan would only accept what is dictated by its free will."

2012-05-20 00:00:00

South Sudan cites Sudan's failure to withdraw

South Sudan calls on the international community to impose “steep sanctions” on Sudan for its violation of Resolution 2046. In particular, South Sudan cited Sudan’s failure to withdraw its troops from Abyei. Barnada Marial Benjamin, the South Sudanese Minister of Information and Media Affairs, said Khartoum "has not only been making statements rejecting resolution of the Security Council which we have already implemented, but you find that they are not interested in withdrawing troops from Abyei." He expressed dismay over the international community’s reluctance to censure Sudan’s violations.

2012-05-21 00:00:00

AUHIP Head is confident in negotiations process

President Mbeki voices confidence in the two sides returning to talks, saying, “I am quite sure we can agree to a date this week.” However, South Sudan’s lead negotiator Pagan Amum accused Sudan of trying to “impose preconditions” on the restart of talks, a demand he insists violates the terms of Resolution 2046.

2012-05-23 00:00:00

Talks will Resume May 29

African Union mediator and former South African President Thabo Mbeki announced that Sudan and South Sudan will resume talks on Tuesday, May 29th in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Sources say the delegations will be led by defense and interior ministers from both countries.

2012-05-29 00:00:00

DEADLINE: Regular Reporting

UN Secretary-General continues to report in two week intervals.

2012-05-29 00:00:00

SAF announces it will pull out of abyei

SAF spokesman announces that Sudan will begin pulling its troops out of Abyei on Tuesday, May 29, coinciding with the beginning of north/south peace talks in Addis Ababa. Sudan also asked for a "guarantee" recognizing Abyei as a part of its territory.

2012-05-29 00:00:00

South Sudan accuses north of 3 days of attacks

South Sudan says it repelled SAF attacks from Friday, May 26, to Monday, May 28. However, South Sudanese negotiator says he remains “optimistic” for the peace talks.

2012-05-30 00:00:00

U.N. confirms Sudan pulled out from Abyei

"The [U.N.] mission confirmed that the pullout was complete late Tuesday evening Abyei time," U.N. spokesman Kieran Dwyer said in an emailed statement.

2012-05-30 00:00:00

After Withdrawal, Sudan increases police presence

In the face of the scheduled SAF troop withdrawal from Abyei, the number of police in the area has risen to about 200, raising fears that some Sudanese soldiers may have simply changed into police uniforms in order to stay.

2012-05-31 00:00:00

Sudan Defies Secretary General

Sudan announced it will keep its police forces in the Abyei area, despite the May 30 withdrawal deadline. "Sudanese army spokesman al-Sawarmi Khalid told SUNA that 169 armed policemen would stay until a planned Abyei police force staffed by both countries had been formed."

2012-06-01 00:00:00

Program of Action agreement

Sudan and South Sudan agree to a program of action for the negotiation process. The program of action is based on the obligations of Khartoum and Juba, as well as those of the AUHIP, outlined in Resolution 2046 and the A.U. Peace and Security Council Decision of April 2012

2012-06-07 00:00:00

border talks conclude without agreement

After failing to agree on a demilitarized buffer zone along their contested border, Sudan and South Sudan left the negotiating table after 10 days. Sudan accused South Sudan of wrongfully claiming five areas, including Heglig oil field, while South Sudan says Khartoum funds militias on its side of the border.

2012-06-08 00:00:00

AUHIP statement on progress of talks

The Joint Political and Security Mechanism, or JPSM, talks adjourned but are set to restart on June 19. The Abyei Joint Oversight Committee, or AJOC, adjourned and will reconvene in Abyei on July 5. Both parties committed to immediately deploying their national observers to the temporary headquarters of the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mission, or JBVMM, in Assosa, Ethiopia. South Sudan provisionally agreed to the AUHIP's proposed map marking the border and a temporary security line between the two countries.

2012-06-08 00:00:00

AUHIP STATEMENT ON PROGRESS OF TALKS

The Joint Political and Security Mechanism, or JPSM, talks adjourned but are set to restart on June 19. The Abyei Joint Oversight Committee, or AJOC, adjourned and will reconvene in Abyei on July 5. Both parties committed to immediately deploying their national observers to the temporary headquarters of the Joint Border Verification and Monitoring Mission, or JBVMM, in Assosa, Ethiopia. South Sudan provisionally agreed to the AUHIP's proposed map marking the temporary security line for the purposes of defining the safe demilitarized border zone between the two countries.

2012-06-12 00:00:00

DEADLINE: Regular Reporting

UN Secretary-General continues to report in two week intervals.

2012-06-18 00:00:00

UNSC Expresses Concern over delays

In a statement, the Security Council welcomed the resumption of talks last month between Khartoum and Juba and noted a reduction in border violence, but "expressed their strong concern about delays and stressed that important elements of the resolution remain unresolved by both parties."

2012-06-21 00:00:00

Negotiations Re-Commence

The latest round of negotiations officially start. Representatives of Sudan and South Sudan met separately with AUHIP and other members of the AU officials in Addis Ababa on June 21.

2012-06-26 00:00:00

DEADLINE: Regular Reporting

UN Secretary-General continues to report in two week intervals.

2012-06-27 00:00:00

GoS "Accepts" Proposal for Humanitarian Aid

The GoS accept the U.N.-African Union-League of Arab States Tripartite Proposal concerning the delivery of aid to populations in South Kordofan and Blue Nile. However, the GoS caveated its acceptance with nine so-called principles. These principles, among other things, "affirm the sovereignty of the Government of Sudan in supervising humanitarian aid operations in all territories in Sudan."

2012-06-28 00:00:00

North-South Negotiations Break for Consultations with Presidents Kiir and Bashir

Negotiations between the governments of Sudan and South Sudan adjourned today after the Sudanese government requested time to return to Khartoum for high-level political consultations with President Bashir and other key leadership. South Sudanese representatives also left Addis Ababa to hold similar consultations in Juba. The expectation is that the two sides will return to Addis Ababa on July 5 for three days of meetings, during which they will present readouts from their respective consultations.

2012-07-01 00:00:00

Negotiations re-start at Lake Tana

2012-07-07 00:00:00

Parties adopt a new approach

Sudan and South Sudan agree to shift the focus of negotiations from only security-related issues to all the issues.

2012-07-10 00:00:00

DEADLINE: Regular Reporting

UN Secretary-General continues to report in two week intervals.

2012-07-20 00:00:00

6 Sudanese bombs hit South Sudan

U.N. observers found six bomb craters inside South Sudan's territory, while Sudan and South Sudan are negotiating in Ethiopia. The bombs landed in Northern Bahr el Ghazal state on Friday, July 20.

2012-07-24 00:00:00

DEADLINE: Regular Reporting

UN Secretary-General continues to report in two week intervals.

2012-08-02 00:00:00

DEADLINE: Conclusion

Conclusion of negotiations between Sudan and South Sudan within three months.

2012-08-04 00:00:00

Oil Deal Reached

Sudan and South Sudan reach tentative oil deal. Final implementation of the deal is, however, dependent on resolving other outstanding issues.

2012-08-07 00:00:00

DEADLINE: Regular Reporting

UN Secretary-General continues to report in two week intervals.

UNSC Resolution 2046 Compliance Tracker

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