Mathematics of Far East Asia

1350 BC - 1850 AD

An interactive gallery of the mathematical traditions of East Asia spanning over 3000 years.

0078 BC-07-22 23:59:52

Jing Fang 京房

Chinese music theorist, mathematician, diviner.

0078-05-15 05:12:10

Zhang Heng 张衡

Chinese polymath.

0100 BC-08-11 11:09:56

Zhou Bi Suan Jing 周髀算经

The official version of the Zhou Bi Suan Jing was compiled around this time.

0100 BC-10-12 04:57:33

Abacus 珠算

Earliest records of a prototype abacus used in the 2nd century BC.

0105 BC-11-28 10:28:51

Modular Congruences

Modular congruences were used to organize the Chinese calendar.

0150-04-23 22:00:16

Gaussian Elimination 方程术

There is textual evidence that the method of solving simultaneous linear equation with arbitrarily many unknowns was fully developed by this time.

0179-08-29 01:20:53

Jiu Zhang Suan Shu 九章算术

A collection of 246 problems was officially finalized in this year. The work probably included mathematics known since the Warring States Period (476 - 221 BC).

0200 BC-04-13 11:39:35

Du Zong Suan Shu 杜总算术

Mathematical text by Zhang Cang.

0200 BC-10-31 01:51:48

Suan Shu Shu 算术书

Oldest copy of any Chinese mathematical text unearthed.

0200 BC-11-10 08:50:21

False Position Method 盈不足术

The use of determinant-like solutions to linear systems of two variables existed in the Suan Shu Shu and Jiu Zhang Suan Shu. However, the method is actually a result of the double false-position interpolation applied on linear functions.

0200-03-18 03:33:44

Chinese Remainder Theorem

A method of solving systems of linear congruences.

0220-09-05 23:52:16

Liu Hui 刘徽

Probably the most innovative mathematician of ancient China.

0250-06-29 08:22:21

Chong Cha Shu 重差术

A nascent form of trigonometry.

0256 BC-08-20 11:00:20

Zhang Cang 张苍

Chinese statesman, mathematician.

0260-03-06 06:36:33

Ge Yuan Shu

Calculation of pi via the limit of converging areas of polygons that inscribe and circumscribe a circle.

0260-05-06 15:53:08

Cavalieri's Principle

Solids with equal cross-sectional areas have equal volume.

0260-09-27 22:37:02

Hai Dao Suan Jing 海岛算经

Mathematical text by Liu Hui.

0305 BC-03-19 05:55:12

Multiplication Table

Earliest base ten multiplication table found on unearthed bamboo strips.

0325 BC-01-19 03:29:50

Gongsun Long 公孙龙

Chinese philosopher famous for his arguments of classes and identity.

0380 BC-10-24 06:16:12

Hui Shi 惠施

Chinese philosopher famous for his ten paradoxes.

0388 BC-09-30 07:14:41

Mo Jing 墨经

The Mo Jing is a philosophical text detailing the Mohist research of logic, ethics, geometry, optics, and mechanics.

0429-04-12 23:47:23

Zu Chongzhi 祖冲之

Chinese astronomer, mathematician, inventor.

0430-02-12 09:09:54

Zhang Qiujian 张丘建

Chinese mathematician

0450-09-04 21:54:31

Zu Geng 祖暅

Chinese astronomer, mathematician.

0460-03-18 03:33:44

Sun Zi Suan Jing 孙子算经

A collection of arithmetic problems. This text is famous for the earliest written exposition of the Chinese Remainder Theorem.

0468 BC-03-19 05:55:12

Mo Di 墨翟

Chinese philosopher, craftsman, engineer.

0480-09-20 12:15:10

Zhui Shu 缀术

A Chinese text on mathematics and astronomy by Zu Chongzhi and Zu Geng. The text was lost since the Southern Song dynasty.

0500 BC-04-29 00:30:13

Counting Rods 筹算

Counting rods were well in use around this time.

0580-12-17 08:46:07

Wang Xiaotong 王孝通

Chinese astronomer, mathematician.

0602-11-02 04:14:57

Li Chunfeng 李淳风

Chinese astronomer, mathematician.

0626-06-13 09:40:33

Ji Gu Suan Jing 缉古算经

Mathematical text by Wang Xiaotong.

0650 BC-12-11 04:44:08

Magic Squares 洛书

Earliest reference to the Luo Shu magic square.

0683-02-05 02:16:12

Yi Xing 僧一行

Chinese mathematician, astronomer, inventor.

1000 BC-08-07 04:36:06

Pythagorean Theorem 勾股求弦

According to the Zhou Bi Suan Jing, Zhou Gong consulted Shang Gao on astronomical matters. In one conversation, the Pythagorean theorem was mentioned as a way to calculate the length of a gnomon's shadow.

1000 BC-09-17 01:38:15

Yi Jing 易经

Earliest Chinese text that utilizes abstract symbols for describing natural change.

1000-11-26 16:28:07

Duo Ji Shu 垛积术

Method of finite series.

1010-04-21 02:19:00

Jia Xian 贾宪

Chinese mathematician.

1020-11-12 13:44:54

Su Song 苏颂

Chinese polymath.

1031-01-03 16:33:52

Shen Kuo 沈括

Chinese polymath.

1192-07-04 19:56:31

Li Ye 李冶

Chinese mathematician.

1200-01-20 02:18:17

Zhao Cha Shu 招差术

Higher-order difference interpolation.

1202-04-27 10:27:46

Qin Jiushao 秦九韶

Chinese mathematician, bureaucrat.

1220-09-15 18:15:17

Tian Yuan Shu 天元术

Polynomial algebra up to four unknowns.

1231-03-18 10:04:02

Guo Shoujing 郭守敬

Chinese mathematician, astronomer, engineer.

1238-01-18 21:07:25

Yang Hui 杨辉

Chinese mathematician.

1247-06-13 09:32:34

Shu Shu Jiu Zhang 数书九章

Mathematical text by Qin Jiushao.

1248-06-13 09:32:34

Ce Yuan Hai Jing 測圆海镜

Mathematical text by Li Ye.

1260-08-19 10:16:59

Zhu Shijie 朱世杰

Chinese mathematician.

1270-06-22 02:43:31

Yang Hui Suan Fa 杨辉算法

Mathematical text by Yang Hui.

1299-01-05 09:58:05

Suan Xue Qi Meng 算学启蒙

Mathematical text by Zhu Shijie.

Mathematics of Far East Asia

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