Evolution of eCulture

Events charting progress of social transformation to a digitally orientated way of life

eCulture - "a term used to categorise the social evolution and transformation course society if pursuing, to a digitally orientated way of life"

Internet of Things Term Born

The term "Internet of things" was coined by Peter T. Lewis in a 1985 speech given at a U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) supported wireless session at the Congressional Black Caucus 15th Legislative Weekend Conference. In his speech he states that "The Internet of Things, or IoT, is the integration of people, processes and technology with connectable devices and sensors to enable remote monitoring, status, manipulation and evaluation of trends of such devices.

Coke Machine - First Internet Connected Device

The concept of a network of smart devices was discussed as early as 1982, with a modified Coke machine at Carnegie Mellon University becoming the first Internet-connected appliance, able to report its inventory and whether newly loaded drinks were cold.

Early IoT - Novell Launch Nest

Novell Embedded Systems Technology (NEST) was a series of APIs, data formats and network protocol stacks written in a highly portable fashion intended to be used in embedded systems. The idea was to allow various small devices to access Novell NetWare services, provide such services, or use NetWare's IPX protocol as a communications system. Novell referred to this concept as "Extended Networks", and when the effort was launched they boasted that they wanted to see one billion devices connected to NetWare networks by year 2000. NEST was launched in mid-1994, and given the timing it seems its true purpose was as a counter to Microsoft's similar Microsoft at Work efforts, which had been launched in 1993. Neither technology saw any amount of third-party support.

EU GDPR becomes Member State Law

The European Commission put forward its EU Data Protection Reform in January 2012 to make Europe fit for the digital age. More than 90% of Europeans say they want the same data protection rights across the EU – and regardless of where their data is processed. The Regulation is an essential step to strengthen citizens' fundamental rights in the digital age and facilitate business by simplifying rules for companies in the Digital Single Market. A single law will also do away with the current fragmentation and costly administrative burdens, leading to savings for businesses of around €2.3 billion a year. The Directive for the police and criminal justice sector protects citizens' fundamental right to data protection whenever personal data is used by criminal law enforcement authorities. It will in particular ensure that the personal data of victims, witnesses, and suspects of crime are duly protected and will facilitate cross-border cooperation in the fight against crime and terrorism. On 15 December 2015, the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission reached agreement on the new data protection rules, establishing a modern and harmonised data protection framework across the EU. The European Parliament's Civil Liberties committee and the Permanent Representatives Committee (Coreper) of the Council then approved the agreements with very large majorities. The agreements were also welcomed by the European Council of 17-18 December as a major step forward in the implementation of the Digital Single Market Strategy. On 8 April 2016 the Council adopted the Regulation and the Directive. And on 14 April 2016 the Regulation and the Directive were adopted by the European Parliament. On 4 May 2016, the official texts of the Regulation and the Directive have been published in the EU Official Journal in all the official languages. While the Regulation will enter into force on 24 May 2016, it shall apply from 25 May 2018. The Directive enters into force on 5 May 2016 and EU Member States have to transpose it into their national law by 6 May 2018.

EU GDPR Adopted

The proposed new EU data protection regime extends the scope of the EU data protection law to all foreign companies processing data of EU residents. It provides for a harmonization of the data protection regulations throughout the EU, thereby making it easier for non-European companies to comply with these regulations; however, this comes at the cost of a strict data protection compliance regime with severe penalties of up to 4% of worldwide turnover." [5] The Parliament's version contains increased fines up to 5%.[6] After trilogue negotiations between the European Parliament, the European Commission and the Council of Ministers, there is general consensus on the wording of the GDPR and also the financial penalties for non-compliance.

Early IoT - Microsoft at Work Concept Launched

Microsoft at Work was a short-lived effort promoted by Microsoft to tie together common business machinery, like fax machines and photocopiers, with a common communications protocol allowing control and status information to be shared with computers running Microsoft Windows. Similar efforts for other markets included Microsoft at Home and Cablesoft. By any measure these efforts were a dismal failure; it appears only a small number of devices using Microsoft at Work were ever released before disappearing without a trace.

Cybathlon: the first ever Olympics for bionic athletes

The Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (ETHZ) launches the world's first ever 'cybathlon'. The scientific competition features 74 disabled athletes from 25 different nationalities, equipped with bionic prostheses, powered exoskeletons and brain-computer interfaces.

Technologies Shaping The Far Future Of Medicine

From the channel of Dr. Bertalan Mesko, PhD, The Medical Futurist, author, keynote speaker, geek doctor with PhD in genomics, science fiction fanatic shares his thoughts on his favorite technologies that he think will really shape the way medicine and healthcare is practiced and delivered.

1.4 Billion Records Compromised in 2016

Nearly 1.4 billion records were compromised in 2016 as a result of roughly 1,800 data breaches, according to Gemalto’s latest Breach Level Index report.

Robot Performs Unassisted Surgery

For the first time, a robot surgeon in Italy has carried out a long-distance heart operation by itself. The 50-minute surgery, which took place in a Milan hospital, was carried out on a 34-year-old patient suffering from atrial fibrillation. Dozens of heart specialists attending an international congress on arrhythmia in Boston also watched.

Reproductive Robots Appear

Cornell University researchers have created a machine that can build copies of itself. At this time the machine was just a proof of concept -- it performs no useful function except to self-replicate -- but the basic principle was the forerunner to create robots that could replicate or at least repair themselves while working in space or in hazardous environments.

DNA robot takes its first steps

A microscopic biped with legs just 10 nanometres long and fashioned from fragments of DNA has taken its first steps. The nanowalker is being hailed as a major breakthrough by nanotechnologists. The biped’s inventors, chemists Nadrian Seeman and William Sherman of New York University, say that while many scientists have been trying to build nanoscale devices capable of bipedal motion, theirs is the first to succeed. “It’s an advance on everything that has gone before,” says Bernard Yurke of Bell Labs in New Jersey, part of the team that made one of the best-known molecular machines to date: a pair of “tweezers” also constructed from DNA strands. Like similar molecular-scale efforts, the tweezers’ arms merely open and close: they can not move around.

Fujitsu Develop Reconfigurable Neural Network

Fujitsu Laboratories, Ltd. today announced that it has developed the world's first learning system for humanoid robots that uses a dynamically reconfigurable neural network to enable the efficient learning of movement and motor coordination. This achievement is a significant leap forward in the development of humanoid robots, making the generation of motion in a humanoid robot, for which complex controls are required, a dramatically faster and simpler process.

Roomba, the Domestic Robot

The first truly popular domestic robot, iRobot’s Roomba let every family pretend it lived alongside the space-age Jetsons. The cordless silver disk weighed just seven pounds and provided real utility for only $199. It zoomed around the room and vacuumed your floors, all without instruction. When Roomba turned 10, it was arguably the first robot to enjoy commercial success having achieved 8 million units sold.

Packbots in Distaster Support

After the Sept. 11 attacks, the collapsed buildings and landscape were too enclosed and dangerous for humans or dogs to navigate. Remote-controlled, shoebox-sized PackBots, manufactured by iRobot, became known for being the first robots used in response to a disaster. They went where no robot had gone before: determining the structural integrity of damaged buildings, taking images and searching through rubble for survivors.

ASIMO was born!

Honda debuted the famous ASIMO robot — Advanced Step in Innovative Mobility — the first one designed both to function in a human environment and also to incorporate predicted movement control (hence, a more natural walking movement). The four-foot, three-inch tall robot’s claim to fame was its advanced technology (i.e., hip joints) that allowed it to walk smoothly and climb stairs.

Amazon Echo Launched

Amazon Echo (shortened and referred to as Echo) is a smart speaker developed by Amazon.com. The device consists of a 9.25 inch (23.5 cm) tall cylinder speaker with a seven-piece microphone array. The device connects to the voice-controlled intelligent personal assistant service Alexa, which responds to the name "Alexa". This "wake word" can be changed by the user to "Amazon", "Echo" or "Computer". The device is capable of voice interaction, music playback, making to-do lists, setting alarms, streaming podcasts, playing audiobooks, and providing weather, traffic and other real time information. It can also control several smart devices using itself as a home automation hub.

Amazon Alexa Launched

Alexa is an intelligent personal assistant developed by Amazon Lab126, made popular by the Amazon Echo and the Amazon Echo Dot. It is capable of voice interaction, music playback, making to-do lists, setting alarms, streaming podcasts, playing audiobooks, and providing weather, traffic, and other real time information, such as news. Alexa can also control several smart devices using itself as a home automation system.

Paralyzed Patients Use Their Minds To Control A Robot Arm

Paralysis following spinal cord injury, brainstem stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other disorders can disconnect the brain from the body, eliminating the ability to perform volitional movements. A neural interface system could restore mobility and independence for people with paralysis by translating neuronal activity directly into control signals for assistive devices. We have previously shown that people with long-standing tetraplegia can use a neural interface system to move and click a computer cursor and to control physical devices. Able-bodied monkeys have used a neural interface system to control a robotic arm, but it is unknown whether people with profound upper extremity paralysis or limb loss could use cortical neuronal ensemble signals to direct useful arm actions. Here we demonstrate the ability of two people with long-standing tetraplegia to use neural interface system-based control of a robotic arm to perform three-dimensional reach and grasp movements. Participants controlled the arm and hand over a broad space without explicit training, using signals decoded from a small, local population of motor cortex (MI) neurons recorded from a 96-channel microelectrode array. One of the study participants, implanted with the sensor 5 years earlier, also used a robotic arm to drink coffee from a bottle. Although robotic reach and grasp actions were not as fast or accurate as those of an able-bodied person, our results demonstrate the feasibility for people with tetraplegia, years after injury to the central nervous system, to recreate useful multidimensional control of complex devices directly from a small sample of neural signals.

Myspace Launched

In August 2003, several eUniverse employees with Friendster accounts saw potential in its social networking features. The group decided to mimic the more popular features of the website. Within 10 days, the first version of Myspace was ready for launch, implemented using ColdFusion. A complete infrastructure of finance, human resources, technical expertise, bandwidth, and server capacity was available for the site. The project was overseen by Brad Greenspan (eUniverse's Founder, Chairman, CEO), who managed Chris DeWolfe (MySpace's starting CEO), Josh Berman, Tom Anderson (MySpace's starting president), and a team of programmers and resources provided by eUniverse. The first Myspace users were eUniverse employees. The company held contests to see who could sign up the most users. eUniverse used its 20 million users and e-mail subscribers to breathe life into Myspace, and move it to the head of the pack of social networking websites.

Future of Life Institute Formed

Mission: To catalyze and support research and initiatives for safeguarding life and developing optimistic visions of the future, including positive ways for humanity to steer its own course considering new technologies and challenges.

Microsoft Hololens Released (Developer Edition)

Microsoft HoloLens, known under development as Project Baraboo, is a pair of mixed reality smartglasses developed and manufactured by Microsoft. HoloLens gained popularity for being one of the first computers running the Windows Mixed Reality platform under the Windows 10 operating system. The HoloLens can trace its lineage to Kinect, an add-on for Microsoft's Xbox gaming console that was introduced in 2010.

Amsterdam Smart City Initiative Starts

The Amsterdam Smart City initiative starts. Consisting of a number of projects addressing key smart city themes including: Infrastructure & Technology Energy, Water & Waste Mobility Circular City Governance & Education Citizens & Living

Barcelona Smart City Initiative Starts

Cities around the world are beginning to understand the huge potential of the Internet of Things (IoT). In Barcelona, those possibilities have started to become the reality. Starting in 2012, the city deployed responsive technologies across urban systems including public transit, parking, street lighting, and waste management. These innovations yielded significant cost savings, improved the quality of life for residents, and made the city a center for the young IoT industry.

3D Printed Cast

A 3d printed medical cast could help bones to heal up to 40 per cent faster. The black cast, known as the Osteoid, uses an ultrasound system which makes bones heal more quickly. With a lattice pattern, it is filled with ventilation holes which the designer says means it does not smell or itch- unlike traditional casts. The cast is combined with a low intensity pulsed ultrasound system, known as LIPUS, for 20 minutes a day, which the designer claims will reduce the healing process of fractures by up to 38 per cent.

Amazon Kindle eBook Reader Launched

Amazon released the Kindle eBook Reader, its first e-reader, for US$399. It sold out in five and a half hours. Amazon Kindle devices enable users to browse, buy, download, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines and other digital media via wireless networking to the Kindle Store.

European Digital Rights (EDRi) Formed

European Digital Rights (EDRi) is an association of civil and human rights organisations from across Europe. We defend rights and freedoms in the digital environment. Information technology has a revolutionary impact on our society. It has boosted freedom of communication and democracy but has also led to new approaches to surveillance and is increasingly used to impose restrictions on fundamental rights. Whenever citizens’ rights and freedoms in the online environment are endangered by the actions of political bodies or private organisations, EDRi ensure that they are respected. EDRi’s key priorities for the next years are privacy, surveillance, net neutrality and copyright reform.

The Nano Hummingbird

Tech company AeroVironment’s remote-controlled hummingbird, an ornithopter, achieved flight in February 2011. It was developed for the United States' Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The robot is equipped with motors, a communications system, a battery and video camera, yet it weighs less than a AA battery. The Nano Hummingbird will most likely pave the way for a new class of aerial surveillance vehicles.

Center for Democracy and Technology Forms

CDT is formed to be a champion of global online civil liberties and human rights, driving policy outcomes that keep the internet open, innovative, and free.

Electronic Frontier Foundation Formed

The Electronic Frontier Foundation was founded in July of 1990 in response to a basic threat to speech. While many early battles over the right early to communicate freely and privately stemmed from government censorship, today EFF is fighting for users on many other fronts as well. Today, certain powerful corporations are attempting to shut down online speech, prevent new innovation from reaching consumers, and facilitating government surveillance. We challenge corporate overreach just as we challenge government abuses of power. EFF also develop technologies that can help individuals protect their privacy and security online, which our technologists build and release freely to the public for anyone to use. In addition, EFF is engaged in major legislative fights, beating back digital censorship bills disguised as intellectual property proposals, opposing attempts to force companies to spy on users, championing reform bills that rein in government surveillance, and much more . They are working with advocates worldwide to create a global digital environment that upholds both human rights and Constitutional rights, and we continue to take on cutting-edge legal cases to win victories for user rights.

More Connected Internet Devices Than People

When we think of being connected to the Internet, our minds immediately shift to our computers, phones, and most recently tablets. Dave Evan's shared that in 2008, the number of devices connected to the Internet exceeded the number of people on Earth.

EU GDPR Reform Agreed

The European Commission put forward its EU Data Protection Reform in January 2012 to make Europe fit for the digital age (IP/12/46). Today, an agreement was found with the European Parliament and the Council, following final negotiations between the three institutions (so-called 'trilogue' meetings). More than 90% of Europeans say they want the same data protection rights across the EU – and regardless of where their data is processed: this will soon be a reality. The Reform package will put an end to the patchwork of data protection rules that currently exists in the EU.

Windows 10 Launched

Windows 10 introduces what Microsoft described as a "universal" application architecture; expanding on Metro-style apps, these apps can be designed to run across multiple Microsoft product families with nearly identical code—including PCs, tablets, smartphones, embedded systems, Xbox One, Surface Hub and HoloLens. The Windows user interface was revised to handle transitions between a mouse-oriented interface and a touchscreen-optimized interface based on available input devices—particularly on 2-in-1 PCs; both interfaces include an updated Start menu that blends elements of Windows 7's traditional Start menu with the tiles of Windows 8.

Intel Presents the "Make it Wearable" Challenge

Intel is looking for the innovators who will design the next big wearable technology

Circuits and Sensors Direct from the Printer

Printers are becoming more and more versatile. Now they can even print sensors and electronic components on 2D and 3D substrates. A new, robot-assisted production line allows the process to be automated.

The Reform of the EU Data Protection Directive

Viviane Reding Vice-President of the European Commission, EU Justice Commissioner announces mandate for new EU data protection rules

Nintendo Wii and MS Health Benefits

A small study published in Radiology found that patients with multiple sclerosis who played a high-instensity video game on a Nintendo Wii saw improvement in the microstructural changes of their brains, which in turn improved the participant’s balance.

ABI: 100M Remote Patient Monitoring Wearables to Ship in next 5 yrs

Over the next five years, ABI Research expects 100 million wearable remote patient monitoring devices to ship.

Banks could play role as ID assurance providers for government services, report finds

Personal data could be stored by banks and used to verify the identity of individuals that wish to use government digital services, according to a new report.

Digitising cash payments can provide economic and social benefits around the world, says new report

Governments across the world have been urged to play a bigger role in promoting the shift from cash and paper-based payment systems to digital payments.

Beacon Technology Introduced by Retailers

House of Fraser and Waitrose have experimented with beacons but finding customers who want to use them is a challenge

Housework 2.0: The Battle of the Robot Vacuum Cleaners Begins!

The public may be expecting to see robot cyborgs battle it out in distant galaxies, but back here on earth the battle of the robots is taking on a distinctively quotidian reality. The double announcements today of Dyson’s 360 Eye and Samsung’s Powerbot VR9000 come as a challenge to robot vacuum market leader iRobot’s Roomba, and hails the arrival of a new competitive era of the robot-as-appliance .

Researchers Develop Untethered, Autonomous Soft Robot

Imagine a non-rigid, shape-changing robot that walks on four "legs," can operate without the constraints of a tether, and can function in a snowstorm, move through puddles of water, and even withstand limited exposure to flames. Harvard advanced materials chemist George Whitesides, PhD and colleagues describe the mobile, autonomous robot they have created in Soft Robotics.

Intel to introduce its stylish MICA smart bracelet

Intel makes its first foray into the wearable tech market – and takes a slightly different tack to its rivals with MICA – which stands for My Intelligent Communication Accessory.

UK privacy law may be reconsidered because of social media

UK's most senior judge suggests the pace of technological change and rise of social media "may make it inevitable" for UK privacy laws to be revised and updated.

Digital Clone: You Won't Be Able to Live Without One

Concept of Digital Clones introduced in book written by Martine Rothblatt -- its title is Virtually Human: The Promise -- and the Peril -- of Digital Immortality. The subject is digital clones, and Rothblatt goes into depth about what they are, when they are coming, and the likelihood they eventually will have equal human rights.

Wireless Monitoring of Breathing Rates

A group of engineers, lead by assistant professor of electrical engineering Neal Patwari, rigged their system together by surrounding a hospital bed with 20 wireless transmitters on a 2.4GHz band. The system was able to detect a person taking 0.4 to 0.2 breaths per minute based on only 30 seconds data, whereas most monitors round off to the nearest full breath-per-minute. The experimental system also passed its accuracy test against a carbon dioxide monitor connected to the patient’s nostrils by tubes.

Government sees 820,000 voters register online

Over one million UK citizens have registered to vote over the last two months, with about 820,000 using a new online registration service rather than paper-based methods. In June, the electoral registration process became the third public service to be digitised after lasting power of attorney and student finance. These online services are part of an initiative led by the Government Digital Service (GDS) as part of the 'digital by default' push to put more public services online.

Google Health Platform launched in US

The Internet search giant’s service, Google Health, at www.google.com/health, is the latest entrant in the growing field of companies offering personal health records on the Web.

Queen Sends Her First eMail

The Queen of England sends first her e-mail. Elizabeth II, Queen of the United Kingdom, sends out an e-mail on March 26 from the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE) in Malvern as a part of a demonstration of networking technology.

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