Deepest fish found
The first fish from hadal depths was sampled by the Princess Alice in the eastern Atlantic Ocean. This cusk eel, Bassogigas profundissimus, held the “deepest fish” record at 6035 m.
Chemosynthetic Communities discovered in Japan Trench
The Shinkai 6500 and the ROV Kaiko, revealed the bathymetric zonation of the chemosynthetic communities in the deepest part of the landward slope of the Japan Trench.
Deepest Fish Collected
A specimen of fish Abyssobrotula galathea (Nielsen 1977) was collected at 8370 m in the Puerto Rico Trench. This specimen was considered to be the deepest-living fish ever collected.
Deepest Samples Collected
Two deepest samples (presumed Foraminifera and meiofauna) were collected from a grab sample taken at 9807 meters from the floor of the Philippine Trench by R. R. Hessler from Scripps Institution of Oceanography during a cruise on the Research vessel Washington.
Mesoplankton Study Published
Vinogradov published a study on the vertical distribution of mesoplankton in the Mariana Trench, Bougainville Trench, Kermadec Trench and Kurile-Kamchatka Trench.
Barophillic Bacteria isolated from Challenger Deep
Two strains of obligately barophilic bacteria were isolated from a sample of the world’s deepest sediment, from ROV Kaiko in the Mariana Trench, Challenger Deep, at a depth of 10,898 m.
Swedish expedition on the Albatross successfully trawled a variety of benthic species from 7625-7900 m from the Puerto Rico Trench (Nybelin, 1951). The catch comprised mostly holothurians (with some polychaetes and isopods) and unequivocally proved that life existed well beyond 6000 m (Eliason, 1951; Madsen, 1955; Nordenstamm, 1955).
Anton Bruun and Danish research vessel Galathea recovered sea anemones and amphipods, isopods, bivalves, and holothurians from 10,190 meters in the Philippine Trench. By the end of the cruise they had trawled in five trenches and collected more than 115 species at depths greater than 6000 meters. Total of 65 grab samples. The Galathea also collected five liparids (snailfish) of the species Careproctus kermadecensis (Nielsen 1964) in one haul between 6660 m and 6770 m in the Kermadec Trench.
Two additional liparid species were sampled by bottom trawling during the Soviet Vityaz expeditions (1953–1957) in the northwestern Pacific Ocean: an individual Careproctus amblystomopsis from 7230 m in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench; and a species of Careproctus, from 7579 m in the Japan Trench. Capture of benthic animals from 10.6 km in the Tonga Trench and 10.7 km in the Marianas Trench.
Hadal zone named
Anton Bruun first described depths in excess of 6 km as a unique ecological realm: the hadal zone.