Arctic in Context

Arctic in Context, a World Policy Institute initiative directed by Erica Dingman, provides needed context on Arctic issues at a crucial time for the region. This web-based platform uses maps, timelines, videos, narrative and analysis to provide an independent, comprehensive, and accessible working overview of the Arctic and fill crucial knowledge gaps.

Actions outside the immediate control of the Arctic dramatically shape its future on challenges including governance, climate change, water, biodiversity, indigenous peoples, commercial development, shipping, natural resources, and security. The region’s future depends on a better global understanding of the consequences of decisions made outside of as well as within the region.

Establishment of the Arctic Council

In 1996 the Ottawa Declaration formally established the Arctic Council, a high-level intergovernmental forum to promote cooperation, coordination, and interaction among the Arctic States (Canada, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, and the United States).

Iqaluit Declaration

On September 19, 1996 the Iqaluit Declaration is adopted by the Arctic Council, the first ministerial meeting to be held by the Arctic Council since its establishment.

Finnish Initiative

In June 1991, the Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy (AEPS) is established in Rovaniemi, Finland as a predecessor to the the Arctic Council.

Murmansk Initiative

On October 1, 1987 Mikhail Gorbachev launches the Murmansk Initiative.

Barrow Declaration

On October 13, 2000 the Barrow Declaration is adopted at the Second Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council.

Nuuk Declaration

On July 2, 2010 the Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC) adopts the the Nuuk Declaration.

Inari Declaration

On September 10, 2002 the Inari Declaration is adopted at the Third Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council.

Reykjavik Declaration

On June 9, 2004 the Reykjavik Declaration is adopted at the Fourth Ministerial Meeting of the Arctic Council.

1st Annual Arctic Report Card

In 2006, The Arctic Council issued the first annual Arctic Report Card, compiled and verified by a global group of 20 scientists and which reviews environmental conditions of the previous five years relative to those in the latter part of the 20th century.

Chilingarov's Claim to the North Pole

On August 2, 2007 the Russian explorer, Artur Chilingarov, made a symbolic claim to the North Pole. Descending in the Mir 1 submersible to the seabed below the North Pole, he planted the Russian flag.

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