PNAS Anniversary Timeline

Explore 100 years of science and world events along with landmark papers published in PNAS.

PNAS was established in 1914 by the National Academy of Sciences to publish brief announcements of the most important research contributions of Academy members and those whose work they felt was significant, and in 1915 the first issue was published. For more information about the centennial see the ;xSTx;a href=" ";xETx;Editorial;xSTx;/a;xETx; from Editor-in-Chief Inder Verma. ;xNLx;

Atomic Energy Act Passed

Quantum Fields- Julian Schwinger

The Expanding Universe - Edwin Hubble

Game Theory - John Nash

Jumping Genes - Barbara McClintock

The Structure of Proteins - Linus Pauling

Nuclear Transplantation - Briggs and King

Semi-Conservative DNA Replication - Meselson and Stahl

Nerve Growth Factor - Rita Levi-Montalcini

Restriction Enzymes - Dana and Nathans

Dopamine in the Brain - Paul Greengard

Three Domains of Life - Woese and Fox

Milky Way Measured

Protons Discovered

Neutrons Discovered

Wave Mechanics

Uncertainty Principle

Penicillin Discovered

Cyclotron Invented

Plastics Invented

Transistor Invented

First Human Organ Transplant

Polio Vaccine Developed

Structure of DNA

Sputnik 1 Launched

First Human in Space

"Silent Spring" Published

First Moon Landing

Personal Computer Invented

World Wide Web

First Animal Cloned from an Adult

Antimatter Detected

Environment Influences Anatomy and Physiology - Franz Boas

One Gene, One Enzyme - Beadle and Tatum

Cracking the Genetic Code - Marshall Nirenberg

Synthesizing a Virus - Arthur Kornberg

A New Model of Neural Processing - The Hopfield Network

Mapping the Nematode Genome - Sulston and Brenner

Genetically Tracing the Neural Circuits of Olfaction - Linda Buck

The H-Index

National Research Council Established

The "Great Debate" on the Scale of the Universe

NAS Celebrates Its Centennial

Invasion of Iraq

Affordable Care Act Signed

Financial Crisis and Recession

Department of Homeland Security Established

Afghan War Begins

9/11 Terrorist Attacks

Gulf War

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