Landscape History of the World copy3

กาลานุกรม ประวัติภูมิสถาปัตยกรรม

วิธีเข้าชม 3D Maejo Timeline :;xNLx;1. กด continue หน้านี้;xNLx;2. กดปิดหน้ากรอบดำเล็กซ้ายมือ ;xNLx;3. กดปุ่ม 3d ซ้ายมือล่างสุดของจอ;xNLx;4. ใช้เม้าส์กดแช่เลื่อนกรอบเวลาแถบดำด้านล่าง หรือ เลื่อนปุ่ม scroll บนเม้าส์ถ้ามี เพื่อเลื่อนดู story ตามกาลเวลา;xNLx;5. คลิกที่ป้ายเพื่อดูเนื้อหา และรูปภาพ คลิป VDO และเสียง (ถ้ามี) คลิกที่ภาพเล็กขยายใหญ่ได้;xNLx;6. คลิกที่ กรอบ Find out more ใต้สุดของข้อความ จะเชื่อมโยงไปยังลิงค์ที่มีเนื้อความละเอียดจากแหล่งข้อมูลที่ออนไลน์ในอินเตอร์เน็ท

Spain and Austria : The Habsburgs Russia : The Tsars

Spain and Austria : The Habsburgs Russia : The Tsars

ISLANDS OF THE IMMORTALS (CHINA)

219 BCE ISLANDS OF THE IMMORTALS (CHINA) Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi8 was obsessed with fi nding an elixir of eternal life. He sent an expedition to the Himalayas to locate the mountaintop dwellings of the mythical Immortals. The Immortals never materialized, but the idea of creating a simulation of their homeland was popularized in the Han dynasty. Within his imperial palace grounds, Emperor Wudi (141–86 BCE) built three artifi cial mountains in a lake, establishing the infl uential prototype of the lake-and-island garden.

Hanging Gardens of Babylon

The Hanging Gardens of Babylon were one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one whose location has not been definitely established. Traditionally they were said to have been built in the ancient city of Babylon, near present-day Hillah, Babil province, in Iraq. The Babylonian priest Berossus, writing in about 290 BC and quoted later by Josephus, attributed the gardens to the Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II, who ruled between 605 and 562 BC. There are no extant Babylonian texts which mention the gardens, and no definitive archaeological evidence has been found in Babylon.[1][2] One legend says that the Hanging Gardens of Babylon were created by Emperor Nebuchadnezzar II, the king of Babylon, for the Persian wife, Queen Amytis, because she missed the green hills and valleys of her homeland. Emperor Nebuchadnezzar II also built a grand palace that came to be known as 'The Marvel of the Mankind' or ('Al A'akheed vach altira'av chad') . Because of the lack of evidence it has been suggested that the Hanging Gardens are purely legendary, and the descriptions found in ancient Greek and Roman writers including Strabo, Diodorus Siculus and Quintus Curtius Rufus represent a romantic ideal of an eastern garden.[3] Alternatively, the original garden may have been a well-documented one that the Assyrian king Sennacherib (704-681 BC) built in his capital city of Nineveh on the River Tigris near the modern city of Mosul.[4]

out of Africa migration of modern humans

In paleoanthropology, the recent African origin of modern humans, frequently dubbed the "Out of Africa" theory, is the most widely accepted model describing the geographic origin and early migration of anatomically modern humans.[1] The theory is called the (Recent) Out-of-Africa model in the popular press, and academically the recent single-origin hypothesis (RSOH), Replacement Hypothesis, and Recent African Origin (RAO) model. The concept was speculative until the 1980s, when it was corroborated by a study of present-day mitochondrial DNA, combined with evidence based on physical anthropology of archaic specimens.

appearance of Homo sapiens in Africa

วิวัฒนาการมนุษย์

peak of the Eemian Stage interglacial

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Sahara desert region is wet and fertile.

Abbassia Pluvial in north Africa. The Sahara desert region is wet and fertile.

Toba Volcano supereruption

Volcano Toba supervolcano Date 69,000–77,000 years ago Type Ultra Plinian Location Sumatra, Indonesia 2.6845°N 98.8756°ECoordinates: 2.6845°N 98.8756°E VEI 8.3 Impact Most recent supereruption; plunged Earth into 6 years of volcanic winter, possibly causing a bottleneck in human evolution and significant changes to regional topography.

Sahara desert region is wet and fertile.

Mousterian Pluvial in north Africa. The Sahara desert region is wet and fertile.

MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC

The Middle Paleolithic (or Middle Palaeolithic) is the second subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. The term Middle Stone Age is used as an equivalent or a synonym for the Middle Paleolithic in African archeology.[1] The Middle Paleolithic and the Middle Stone Age broadly spanned from 300,000 to 30,000 years ago. There are considerable dating differences between regions. The Middle Paleolithic/Middle Stone Age was succeeded by the Upper Paleolithic subdivision which first began between 50,000 and 40,000 years ago

humans spread from Africa to the Near East

Modern humans spread from Africa to the Near East; age of Haplogroup B (mtDNA)[2] In the next millennia, these human group's descendants move on to southern India, the Malay islands, Australia, Japan, China, Siberia, Alaska, and the northwestern coast of North America.[2] Later Stone Age begins in Africa.

Paleolithic flutes in Europe

Paleolithic flutes in Europe

Denisova hominin lives in the Altai Mountains

Denisova hominin lives in the Altai Mountains Denisova hominins /dəˈniːsəvə/, or Denisovans, are Paleolithic-era members of a species of Homo or subspecies of Homo sapiens. In March 2010, scientists announced the discovery of a finger bone fragment of a juvenile female who lived about 41,000 years ago, found in the remote Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in Siberia, a cave which has also been inhabited by Neanderthals and modern humans.[1][2][3] Two teeth and a toe bone belonging to different members of the same population have since been reported.

paintings of Bhimbetka rock shelters in India.

paintings of Bhimbetka rock shelters in India. Some evidence points to artwork belonging to homo erectus

UPPER PALEOLITHIC

The Upper Paleolithic (or Upper Palaeolithic, Late Stone Age) is the third and last subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age as it is understood in Europe, Africa and Asia. Very broadly, it dates to between 50,000 and 10,000 years ago, roughly coinciding with the appearance of behavioral modernity and before the advent of agriculture. The terms "Later Stone Age" and "Upper Paleolithic" refer to the same periods. For historical reasons, "Later Stone Age" usually refers to the period in Africa, whereas "Upper Paleolithic" is generally used when referring to the period in Europe.

oldest known cave paintingsin Altamira, El Castillo Spain.

oldest known cave paintings. Red dots, hand stencils and animal figures in Altamira, El Castillo Spain.

Cro-Magnon colonization of Europe.

the oldest known tally stick (the Lebombo Bone)

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oldest known figurative art (Venus of Hohle Fels), age of the Aurignacian culture

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Aurignacian culture begins in Europe.

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approximate age of Haplogroup X (mtDNA) and Haplogroup I (mtDNA).

First domestic dogs, A herd of reindeer is slaughtered and butchered by humans in the Vezere Valley in what is today France.

extinction of Homo neanderthalensis.

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New Guinea is populated by colonists from Asia or Australia.

New Guinea (also, Tok Pisin: Niugini, Dutch: Nieuw-Guinea, and Indonesian: Irian; historically: Papua) is the world's second largest island, after Greenland, covering a land area of 786,000 km2. Located in the southwest Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Malay Archipelago, with which it is sometimes included as part of a greater Indo-Australian Archipelago.[1] Geologically it is a part of the same tectonic plate as Australia. When world sea levels were low, the two shared shorelines (which now lie 100 to 140 metres below sea level),[2] combining with lands now inundated into the tectonic continent of Sahul,[3][4] also known as Greater Australia.[5] The two landmasses became separated when the area now known as the Torres Strait flooded after the end of the last glacial period. Anthropologically, New Guinea is considered part of Melanesia.[6] Politically, the western half of the island comprises two provinces of Indonesia: Papua and West Papua. The eastern half forms the mainland of the country of Papua New Guinea. The island has a population of about 7.5 million, with a very low population density of only 8 inh/km2. New Guinea is differentiated from its drier, flatter,[7] and less fertile[8][9] southern counterpart, Australia, by its much higher rainfall and its active volcanic geology, with its highest point, Puncak Jaya, reaching an elevation of 4,884 m (16,023 ft). Yet the two land masses share a similar animal fauna, with marsupials, including wallabies and possums, and the egg-laying monotreme, the spiny anteater, or echidna. Other than bats and some two dozen indigenous rodent genera,[10] there are no pre-human indigenous placental mammals. Pigs, several additional species of rats, and the ancestor of the New Guinea singing dog were introduced with human colonization. The human presence on the island dates back at least 40,000 years to the oldest human migrations out of Africa. Research indicates that the highlands were an early and independent center of agriculture, with evidence of irrigation going back at least 10,000 years.[11] Because of the time depth of its inhabitation and its highly fractured landscape, an unusually high number of languages are spoken on the island, with some 1,000 languages (a figure higher than that of most continents) having been catalogued out of an estimated world-wide pre-Columbian total of 6,000 human dialects. Most are classified as Papuan languages, a generally accepted geographical term which a minority of authors hold to be a genetic one. A number of Austronesian languages are spoken on the coast and on offshore islands. In the 16th century Spanish explorers discovered the island and called it Nueva Guinea. In recent history western New Guinea was included in the Dutch East Indies colony. The Germans annexed the northern coast of the eastern half of the island as German New Guinea in their pre–World War I effort to establish themselves as a colonial power, whilst the south eastern portion was reluctantly claimed by Britain. Following the Treaty of Versailles, the German portion was awarded to Australia (which was already governing the British claim, named the Territory of Papua) as a League of Nations mandate. The eastern half of the island was granted independence from Australia as Papua New Guinea in 1975. The western half gained independence from the Dutch in 1961, but became part of Indonesia soon afterwards in controversial circumstances.

Gravettian period in Europe.

Harpoons, needles, and saws invented.

People around the world use fibers to make baby carriers, clothes, bags, baskets, and nets.

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Last Glacial Maximum; approximate age of Haplogroup H (mtDNA)

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first colonization of North America

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a hamlet consisting of huts built of rocks and of mammoth bones is founded in what is now Dolni Vestonice in Moravia in the Czech Republic. This is the oldest human permanent settlement that has yet been found by archaeologists.[

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The woolly rhinoceros goes extinct; approximate age of Haplogroup T (mtDNA).

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MESOLITHIC

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Chatelperronian culture in France.

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Kebaran culture in the Levant.

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approximate age of Haplogroup V (mtDNA)

Wisent sculpted in clay deep inside the cave now known as Le Tuc d'Audoubert in the French Pyrenees near what is now the border of Spain.

The Humid Period begins in North Africa.

The region that would later become the Sahara is wet and fertile, and the Aquifers are full.

Late Glacial Maximum, end of the Last glacial period, climate warms, glaciers recede; approximate age of Haplogroup K (mtDNA).

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A major outbreak occurs on Lake Agassiz,

which at the time could have been the size of the current Black Sea and the largest lake on Earth. Much of the lake is drained in the Arctic Ocean through the Mackenzie river.

Land ice leaves Denmark and southern Sweden; start of the current Holocene epoch.

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Emergence of Jericho,

Emergence of Jericho, which is now one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. Giant short-faced bears and giant ground sloths go extinct. Equidae goes extinct in North America.

The Quaternary extinction event, which has been ongoing since the mid-Pleistocene, concludes.

The Quaternary extinction event, which has been ongoing since the mid-Pleistocene, concludes. Many of the ice age megafauna go extinct, including the megatherium, woolly rhinoceros, Irish elk, cave bear, cave lion, and the last of the sabre-toothed cats. The mammoth goes extinct in Eurasia and North America, but is preserved in small island populations until ~1650 BC.

NEOLITHIC

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In northern Mesopotamia, now northern Iraq, cultivation of barley and wheat begins.

In northern Mesopotamia, now northern Iraq, cultivation of barley and wheat begins. At first they are used for beer, gruel, and soup, eventually for bread.[13] In early agriculture at this time, the planting stick is used, but it is replaced by a primitive plow in subsequent centuries.[14] Around this time, a round stone tower, now preserved to about 8.5 meters high and 8.5 meters in diameter is built in Jericho.

Neolithic Subpluvial in North Africa. The Sahara desert region supports a savanna-like environment.

Neolithic Subpluvial in North Africa. The Sahara desert region supports a savanna-like environment. Lake Chad is larger than the current Caspian Sea. A black African culture develops across the current Sahel region.

Çatal Höyük urban settlement founded in Anatolia

Catal Huyuk - Çatalhöyük

Jiahu culture began in China

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a sudden decrease of global temperatures, likely caused by the final collapse of the Laurentide ice sheet which leads to drier conditions in East Africa and Mesopotamia.

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Copper smelting in evidence in Pločnik and other locations.

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Ghar Dalam phase on Malta. First farming settlements on the island.

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late Neolithic civilizations, invention of the wheel and spread of proto-writing.

late Neolithic civilizations, invention of the wheel and spread of proto-writing. The oldest golden treasure found in Varna Necropolis.

Civilizations develop in the Mesopotamia /Fertile crescent region

Civilizations develop in the Mesopotamia/Fertile crescent region (around the location of modern day Iraq). The american mastodon goes extinct.

a rapid and intense aridification event which likely started the current Sahara Desert dry phase

a rapid and intense aridification event which likely started the current Sahara Desert dry phase and a population increase in the Nile Valley due to migrations from nearby regions. It is also believed this event contributed to the end of the Ubaid period in Mesopotamia.

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