The Co-Evolution of the Moving Image, Consciousness, Culture, and Society

This timeline represents a preliminary mapping of the co-evolution of the moving image in all its evolving forms, and consciousness, culture and society using a transdisciplinary and Integrally-informed cinematic analytical meta-approach to explore the history of cinema, self and world from 1878 through the present.

This timeline is a product of research being conducted by Mark Allan Kaplan, Ph.D. through the [Integral Cinema Project](;xNLx;;xNLx;The mission and purpose of THE INTEGRAL CINEMA PROJECT is to develop and test a comprehensive model for Integral cinematic media theory, creation, and reception with the goal of creating and disseminating cinematic media that more powerfully and deeply entertains, enlightens, transforms, and supports the healthy evolution of individuals and the collective, while training a generation of evolutionary and integrally-informed cinematic artists and theorists to do the same.;xNLx;;xNLx;REFERENCES;xNLx;;xNLx;Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (2013). The academy awards database. Retrieved from;xNLx;;xNLx;American Film Institute (1998-2008). AFI's 100 years: The complete lists. Retrieved from;xNLx;;xNLx;Bordwell, D. (1998). On the history of film style. Harvard University Press.;xNLx;;xNLx;Dirks, T. (2013). Film history by decade. AMC Filmsite (Available at:;xNLx;;xNLx;Monaco, P. (2010). A history of American movies: A film-by-film look at the art, craft, and business of cinema. Scarecrow Press. ;xNLx;;xNLx;Morin, E. (1956/2005).  The Cinema, or The Imaginary Man.  (Trans. Lorraine Mortimer).  Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.;xNLx;;xNLx;Morin, E. (1972/2005). The Stars. (Trans. Richard Howard).  Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.;xNLx;;xNLx;Nowell-Smith, G. (Ed.) (1999). The Oxford history of world cinema. Oxford University Press. ;xNLx;;xNLx;Quart, L. & Auster, A. (2011). American film and society since 1945. Praeger.;xNLx;;xNLx;Rausch, A. (2004). Turning points in film history. Citadel.;xNLx;;xNLx;Rombes, N. (2009). Cinema in the digital age. Wallflower Press. ;xNLx; ;xNLx;Salt, B. (2009). Film style and technology: History and analysis. Starword.;xNLx;;xNLx;Thompson, K. and Bordwell, D. (2009). Film history: An introduction. McGrew-Hill.;xNLx;;xNLx;Wikipedia (;xNLx;

The Birth of the Moving Image- Muybridge's Galloping Horse

Photographer Eadweard Muybridge, with a commission by Leland Sanford captured the first moving image of a galloping horse on June 15, 1878.

Early Film Projector - The Zoopraxiscope

TECH: The zoopraxiscope is an early device for displaying motion pictures created by photographic pioneer Eadweard Muybridge in 1879.

Marey's chronophotographic gun

TECH: Etienne Jules Marey invents the Photographic Gun or the Chronophotographe.

1st motion picture camera & projector - Le Prince

TECH: Augustin Le Prince invents a single-lens motion picture camera and projector.

1st celluloid film - "Roundhay Garden Scene"

The earliest celluloid film was shot by Louis Aimé Augustin Le Prince using the Le Prince single-lens camera made in 1888.

1st Copyrighted Film - "Fred Ott's Sneeze"

The first U.S. copyright for an identifiable motion picture was given to Edison for Fred Ott's Sneeze.

Kinetoscope - Early Film Viewing Device

TECH: Thomas Edison employee William Kennedy Laurie Dickson invents the Kinetograph, which will later be renamed the Kinetoscope.

1st Film in Roll Form

TECH: In 1884, George Eastman patented the first film in roll form to prove practicable.

1st American Film Studio (Edison)

BUSINESS: Thomas Edison builds the first film studio, Edison's Black Maria in West Orange, New Jersey.

Celluloid Film Invented

TECH: American inventors George Eastman and Hannibal Goodwin each invent a sensitized celluloid base roll photographic film.

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