An informative timeline from the Early Georgian period to Today, linking health and housing. Public health sanitation and housing design are connected to understand the development to todays standards.

Water closets

Valve closet and the pan closet. Sewage disposal notoriously inadequate or even non-existent, with WCs variously discharging liquid sewage directly into storm drains, rivers or even street gutters.

Hampstead Garden suburb developed.

Purpose built bathrooms designed for hygiene

Porcelain and exposed fittings to allow for cleaning.

Concerns begin to grow about public health in slums

Stimulated by a fear among the middle classes of infectious disease spreading from the overcrowded and unsanitary working class housing into where they live.

Wealth, health and the seaside – Brighton

It is more fashionable for polite society to live in seaside towns.

Chimney sweeps are banned

Water filtration and reservoirs

18th Century

Some larger houses have drains connected to public sewers or cesspools used for fertiliser.

Small houses are back-to-back or through. They have no cold water, kitchen or WC.


Alexander Cummings patents his WC.

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